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PROMOTING WORLD-WIDE PLANT HEALTH AND FOOD SECURITYI NTERNATIONAL S OCIETY FOR P LANT P ATHOLOGYISPP NEWSLETTERISSUE 51 (9) SEPTEMBER 2021Editor: Daniel Hüberli (email)Join the ISPP mail listIN THIS ISSUE:Notice to ISPP Councillors - Selection of Host Society forICPP2028ISPP's Global Plant Health Assessment: a website is open and anInternational Workshop Conference is plannedSpores, Maria Lodovica Gullino, Springer, 2021, 289 pagesProtein discovery could help enable eco-friendly fungicidesOne Health concepts and challenges for surveillance, forecasting,and mitigation of plant diseasePlant pathogen infection risk tracks global crop yields underclimate changeMeasuring electric current in soil could provide answers on soilhealthDrought changes root microbiome of riceNew enzyme identified that infects plants - paving the way forpotential disease preventionPlant health workshopsCurrent VacanciesAcknowledgementsComing EventsINTERNATIONAL SOCIETY FOR PLANT PATHOLOGY (ISPP)WWW.ISPPWEB.ORG

International Society for Plant PathologyNOTICE TO ISPP COUNCILLORS - SELECTION OF HOST SOCIETY FORICPP2028ANDREA MASINO, ISPP BUSINESS MANAGEROne of the objectives of the International Society for Plant Pathology is to "sponsor a series ofInternational Congresses of Plant Pathology", normally at intervals of 5 years. During March-August 2021, ISPPAssociated Societies were invited to submit bids for the hosting of the 13th International Congress of PlantPathology in 2028 (ICPP2028).Selection of the location and date of each Congress is the responsibility of ISPP's Council, and is undertaken by aballot on Congress bid proposals. The ISPP Council consists of the ISPP Executive Committee and theISPP ee http://www.isppweb.org/about associated eng.asp ).The call for bids to host ICPP2028 is now complete and 4 bids have been received. During September-November2021, ISPP Councilors will be asked to consider the submited bid documents and vote on their preferred host forICPP2028.In order to ensure the vote is as complete as possible, ISPP member Societies are asked to check and update theirISPP Councilor listings at http://www.isppweb.org/about committees.asp. During August-September 2021,ISPP will be contacting the ISPP Council to check and confirm the accuracy of their contact details.Voting will open by 30 September 2021 with first round voting to be completed by 31 October 2021. If aclear winning bid (two thirds of votes received) is not obtained in the first round, a second round of votingmay occur in November 2021.For any questions please write at [email protected] (Copying [email protected]).ISPP Newsletter 51 (9) September 20211

International Society for Plant PathologyISPP'S GLOBAL PLANT HEALTH ASSESSMENT: A WEBSITE IS OPEN ANDAN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP CONFERENCE IS PLANNEDGPHA CONFERENCE SECRETARIAT: SONAM SAH * AND MANJARI SINGH ** DOCTORAL STUDENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRO -METEOROLOGY, GB PANT UNIVERSITY OFAGRICULTURE AND TECH NOLOGY, PANTNAGAR, U TTARAKHAND, INDIAGOALS OF THE GLOBAL PLANT HEALTH ASSESSMENTThe Global Plant Health Assessment is an ISPP initiative involving an international, volunteered, peer-reviewedevaluation of the state of plant health across ecoregions of the world, and of the effects of plant disease onecosystem services. The initiative has been impulse by the International Year of Plant Health (IYPH, 2020) towhich ISPP has contributed in a number of ways.Much progress has been made in the past months on documenting the health human-made and natural plantsystems. Regular meetings have taken place; reports have been circulated and have been or are being peer-reviewed.It is time now to envision reporting. A first reporting stage is a website where some key elements are being madeavailable to ISPP members and the broader public.The website address is: assessment/home?authuser 0This website is regularly updated by the GPHA Secretariat as new information is being assembled. The GPHAaddresses four broad types of Plant-Systems: forests, agricultural systems, peri-urban horticulture and householdgardens, and urban vegetation. Each system in each ecoregion is being addressed by a small team composed of aLead Scientist and a group of 3-4 Experts. The initiative therefore involves some 100 scientists in the world.ISPP Newsletter 51 (9) September 20212

International Society for Plant PathologyTHE INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP CONFERENCE ON THE GLOBAL PLANTASSESSMENTFor the past several months, an International Workshop Conference on the Global Plant Assessment has beenplanned. The event will include three days of closed-session workshop on the 26 reports that are being assembledon the various Plant-Systems across the world. It will be followed by a Conference where plant health will bediscussed using a series of cross-cutting, over-arching questions. The Conference will be open to the public (theentire ISPP community and beyond) and will include formal lectures and expert-driven panel discussions with theaudience. Both components will be conducted in a hybrid way for physically attending and remotely connectedparticipants. The event will take place at the Toulouse School of Economics of the University of Toulouse whichhas kindly offered the use of its meeting facilities. The Workshop will take place on 5-7 October 2021, and thepublic conference will be held on 8 October 2021.A tentative programme of the event is listed on the website. The programme depends on the global evolution ofCOVID-19, and its organisation may evolve. This is supervised by a GPHA Coordination Group (in alphabeticorder):Didier Andrivon(1), Paul D. Esker(2), Laurent Huber (3), Jatinder Kumar (4), Neil D. McRoberts (5), Andy Nelson (6),Sarah J. Pethybridge (7), Serge Savary (8), Pepijn Schreinemachers(9), Laetitia Willocquet (8)(1) Département SPE, IGEPP, INRAE, France(2) Dept. of Plant Pathology, Penn State University, USA(3) Dept. Agrosystèmes, INRAE, France(4) Dept. of Plant Pathology, GB Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, India(5) Dept. of Plant Pathology, UC Davis, USA(6) Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, The Netherlands(7) Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology Section, Cornell Agritech, Cornell University, USA(8) Département Santé des Plantes et Environnement, INRAE, France(9) WorldVeg Center, Thailand/TaiwanISPP Newsletter 51 (9) September 20213

International Society for Plant PathologySPORES, MARIA LODOVICA GULLINO, SPRINGER, 2021, 289 PAGESSTEFANIA ANTROWhy do plants get sick, and how do they do so? Whyis it so important to protect their health? What is therelation between plant health and human health? Theperson best suited to answer these questions can onlybe a plant pathologist, someone who has devoted herwhole life to plant diseases, and knows very well thattheir management is not only a pleasure or aprofessional matter, but a social responsibility, adutiful goal. Plants are our main source of oxygenand nourishment, and their key role for global healthwas brought to public attention in 2020 by numerousinitiatives promoted worldwide for the celebration ofthe International Year of Plant Health.Maria Lodovica Gullino, born in a family of fruitgrowers from Piedmont, a well established plantpathologist, Director of AGROINNOVA - Centerof Competence for the innovation in the agroenvironmental field, at the University of Torino,Past-President of the International Society for PlantPathology, starts from her personal experience tointroduce the reader to some “Spores”. With thisgeneric but evocative label, she refers to plant peststhat throughout history have influenced the fate ofmany people, and keep on doing so, both indeveloping countries and in the industrialised ones.Her keen interest in plant health developed at an earlyage when, following her father in the family orchards,she had the chance of seeing first-hand their fruitcrops damaged by plant pests. This is how sheunderstood that plant diseases are able tocompromise harvest and therefore small farms’revenues, and are responsible - as she discoveredlater – of devastating impacts on the environment,the economy and the livelihoods of entire sections ofpopulations relying on those crops.plant pathology, but a story showcasing personalevents of the Author’s life and academic path, andother anecdotes and curiosities about a universe that,though little known to the general public, indeedconcerns everyone, since the well-being of man-kinddepends on the health of plants.In a pleasant and easy-going style, Maria LodovicaGullino enthralls the layman reader to a complex andmore than ever relevant subject, offering an overviewof the lab researches, the fruitful internationalcollaborations, the many chances offered by newresearch fields and cutting-edge technologies, theconsequences of environmentally disrespectfulmethods, and the opportunities provided by multisectorial and transdisciplinary approaches, such asthe circular health vision, to the study of plantdiseases.Spores, republished by Springer in this updated andexpanded edition of the previous Italian one (Spore,Daniela Piazza Editore, 2014), is not a treatise onISPP Newsletter 51 (9) September 20214

International Society for Plant PathologyThe stories of this book rangefrom the Irish famine caused bythe late blight of potato in themiddle 1800s, to dangerousmycotoxins that, often boostedbyfavourableclimaticconditions, not only do theyaffect the agricultural economiesof many countries, but alsoseriously jeopardise the foodsafety of people and animals.Particular emphasis is placed onthe globalisation of trade andclimate change, underlying therisks connected to invasive alienspecies attacking agriculturalcrops in geographical areaswhere they were unknown before, or to theappearance of more virulent strains or new racescapable of attacking varieties previously consideredresistant. It is the case of the recent devastatingbacterial canker of kiwifruits, reported the first timein Japan and then in all leading producers worldwide- from New Zealand to Italy and Chile - and of thenew strain of black rust of wheat that from Ugandahas rapidly reached the Near East and centralsouthern Asia.The overview of historical and more recentepidemics is interspaced by the presentation ofpossible strategies to address future critical issues,increasingly linked to climate change: from the mostadvanced diagnostics in the phytosanitary field to soildisinfestation, from biological control to postharvest treatments, from green biotechnologiesaimed at producing stress-resistant plants or atincreasing their nutritional content, to edible vaccines,which might open up new perspectives forinternational agriculture and human health in thefuture.ISPP Newsletter 51 (9) September 2021An exhaustive immersion in an interdisciplinary andincredibly current field of study, presented withoutany idealism, but with the scientific rigor and clarityof a researcher, and at the same time the lightnessand curiosity of a passionate traveller who has spentyears, a suitcase in her hand, exploring distantcultivations and cultures. The author, bringing in thebook also many colleagues and friends met aroundthe world, also tells readers how scientists live andwork.More information on the book is available on theSpringer website.5

International Society for Plant PathologyPROTEIN DISCOVERY COULD HELP ENABLE ECO-FRIENDLY FUNGICIDESJULES BERNSTEIN, UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA RIVERSIDE NEWS, 3 MARCH 2021New research reveals an essential step in scientists’ quest to create targeted, more eco-friendly fungicides thatprotect food crops. Scientists have known for decades that biological cells manufacture tiny, round structurescalled extracellular vesicles. However, their pivotal roles in communication between invading microorganisms andtheir hosts were recognised only recently. UC Riverside geneticist Hailing Jin and her team found plants use thesevesicles to launch RNA molecules at fungal invaders, suppressing the genes that make the fungi dangerous.“These vesicles shuttle small RNAs between cells, like tiny Trojan horses with weapons hidden inside,” said Jin, aprofessor of genetics and the Cy Mouradick Chair in the Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology. “Theycan silence pathogenic fungal gene expression.”Using extracellular vesicles and small RNAs has several advantages over conventional fungicides. They’re moreeco-friendly because they are similar to naturally occurring products. Eventually, they degrade and do not leavetoxic residues in the soil. Also, Jin explained, this method of fighting fungi is less likely to breed drug-resistantpathogens.A sticking point for scientists in creating these fungicides has been figuring out how to load their desired smallRNAs into the vesicles. Jin’s laboratory has identified several proteins that serve as binding agents, helping toselect and load small RNAs into the vesicles. The lab’s research is detailed in a new Nature Plants journal article.The Jin laboratory has been working for several years on the development of gene-silencing RNA fungicides.Work toward this goal led to the team’s landmark discovery in 2013 that gene-silencing RNA messages can besent from the fungal pathogen to the plant host to suppress host immunity. Later, the team learned small RNAscan move both ways — from plants into pathogenic invader cells as well.In 2018, the team worked out that extracellular vesicles were the major delivery system for these small RNAs.They observed that Arabidopsis plants secrete extracellular vesicles into Botrytis cinerea, a fungus that causes greymold disease and destroys millions of crops every year. Now, she and her colleagues have identified several RNAbinding proteins in Arabidopsis that bind to specific small RNA molecules and load them into extracellular vesicles.This suggests the proteins play an important role in loading and stabilising small RNAs in the vesicles. The findingcan help increase the payload of gene-silencing RNAs that make it into vesicles and enhance the efficiency ofdisease control.Some scientists have taken inspiration from the RNA communication in plant vesicles to design human therapies.For example, some are attempting to load anti-cancer RNAs and drugs into extracellular vesicles in fruits orvegetables, so people can eat or drink them. Jin is hopeful that her lab’s discovery can aid these efforts.ISPP Newsletter 51 (9) September 20216

International Society for Plant PathologyONE HEALTH CONCEPTS ANDCHALLENGES FOR SURVEILLANCE,FORECASTING, AND MITIGATIONOF PLANT DISEASEdisease surveillance and prevention are key commonalitieswhere actors in the efforts to prevent zoonotic diseasesand plant disease can work together for the managementof biodiversity and consequently human, animal, andplant health.Read paper.PLANT PATHOGEN INFECTIONA review by Cindy E. Morris et al. titled “One Healthconcepts and challenges for surveillance, forecasting, andmitigation of plant disease beyond the traditional scope ofcrop production” was published on 5 August 2021 byPlant Pathology (early view). The abstract is as follows:The One Health approach to understanding diseaseepidemiology and achieving surveillance and prevention isholistic, while focusing on zoonotic diseases. Many of itsprinciples are similar to those espoused in agroecology,begetting the question of what One Health cancontribute—in practice—to preventing plant disease.Here we describe four knowledge challenges for planthealth management that have arisen from the One Healthexperience for zoonotic diseases that could boostprospects for novel approaches to plant diseasesurveillance, prediction, and prevention. The challengesare to (a) uncover reservoirs and revise pathogen lifehistories, (b) elucidate drivers of virulence beyond thecontext of direct host–pathogen interactions, (c) accountfor the natural highways of long-distance dissemination(i.e., surface water and air mass movement), and (d)update disease forecasts in the face of changing land use,cultivation practices, and climate. Furthermore, we notethat implementation of a One Health approach to diseasesurveillance and prevention will require mobilization oftools to deal with the representation and accessibility ofmassive and heterogeneous data and knowledge; withknowledge inference, data science, modelling, and patternrecognition; and multi-actor approaches that unitedifferent sectors of society as well as different scientificdisciplines. The infrastructure to build and the obstaclesto overcome for a bona fide One Health approach toISPP Newsletter 51 (9) September 2021RISK TRACKS GLOBAL CROPYIELDS UNDER CLIMATE CHANGEA paper by Thomas M. Chaloner et al. titled “Plantpathogen infection risk tracks global crop yields underclimate change” was published on 5 August 2021 byNature Climate Change (vol. 11, pp. 710–715). The abstractis as follows:Global food security is strongly determined by cropproduction. Climate change-induced losses to productioncan occur directly or indirectly, including via thedistributions and impacts of plant pathogens. However,the likely changes in pathogen pressure in relation toglobal crop production are poorly understood. Here weshow that temperature-dependent infection risk, r(T), for80 fungal and oomycete crop pathogens will trackprojected yield changes in 12 crops over the twenty-firstcentury. For most crops, both yields and r(T) are likely toincrease at high latitudes. In contrast, the tropics will seelittle or no productivity gains, and r(T) is likely to decline.In addition, the United States, Europe and China mayexperience major changes in pathogen assemblages. Thebenefits of yield gains may therefore be tempered by thegreater burden of crop protection due to increased diseaseand unfamiliar pathogens.Read paper.7

International Society for Plant PathologyMEASURING ELECTRIC CURRENT IN SOIL COULD PROVIDE ANSWERSON SOIL HEALTHTINA HILDING, WASHINGTON STATE UNIVERSITY INSIDER, 19 AUGUST 2021Washington State University researchers have developed a way to assess soil health by measuring the electriccurrent produced by microbes. The team used a probe originally developed to measure the electrochemical signalof microbes in aquatic environments and tested it on healthy and unhealthy soil samples to measure microbialmetabolism and other indicators of soil health. This proof-of-concept research, published in Journal ofElectrochemical Society, could someday lead to a simple, real-time test for farmers to determine whether soil isproductive.“Soil underpins all the food we eat, and most of it is degraded worldwide,” said Maren Friesen, an associateprofessor in the Departments of Plant Pathology and Crop and Soil Sciences and a co-author on the study. “Oneof the biggest barriers to improving soils is not being able to have rapid, real-time measurement to developappropriate management strategies for them. This sensor has the potential to be able to do real-time measurementsnot just of the structure of the soil, but how it’s actually functioning. It would be a huge advance in the field.”Soil health is critically important to agriculture and crop success worldwide, but measuring it is not straightforward.Farmers and researchers use soil chemistry, nutrient analysis, texture and pH measurements to gain understandingof soil’s physical and chemical properties. While that information can be valuable, it doesn’t always reflect howproductive the soil actually is.That’s because a key to soil productivity is how microbes function, said Friesen. Billions of bacteria, fungi andother organisms play critical roles in nutrient mobilisation and provisioning, defense against pathogens and plantgrowth. But, until now, there has been no simple, real-time way to measure the microbial activity.“What makes a soil beneficial for a plant is that it is alive and contains all these bacteria and fungi,” she said.In the new paper, the WSU research team was able to measure current through the soil to determine microbialactivity and distinguish healthy and unhealthy soils. The researchers used a probe that they developed a few yearsago to measure the electrochemical signal of microbes in aquatic environments. Similar to how humans eat andbreathe, microorganisms take in food and then use electrons liberated during metabolism for their energy. Finally,microbes give these electrons to an acceptor molecule such as oxygen. The probe the team developed replacesthese acceptor molecules with an electrode. Using this electrode, they can then measure the electric current andget an idea of the magnitude of microbial activity.Read more.ISPP Newsletter 51 (9) September 20218

International Society for Plant PathologyDROUGHT CHANGES ROOT MICROBIOME OF RICEANDY FELL, UC DAVIS COLLEGE OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES NEWS, 29 JULY 2021Drought can have a lasting impact on thecommunity of microbes that live in andaround roots of rice plants, a team led byUniversity of California, Davis, researchershas found. Root-associated microbes helpplants take up nutrients from the soil, so thefinding could help in understanding how riceresponds to dry spells and how it can bemade more resilient to drought. The U.S.National Science Foundation-funded workwas published in Nature Plants.The root microbiome of irrigated rice plantsgoes through a sequence of changes as the Christian Santos-Medellín and Zach Liechty, graduate students in the Sundaresan lab andauthors of the recent paper in Nature Plants, found that prolonged droughtplants grow and stabilises when they flower. leadpermanently changes the root microbiome of rice plants (Photo credit: UC Davis).The sequence of changes in the rootmicrobiome is consistent for a particular ricestrain and geographic location. Previous work has shown that when a growing rice plant is deprived of water, ithits pause on the succession of changes in the root microbiome.Venkatesan Sundaresan, a distinguished professor in the Department of Plant Biology and colleagues looked atchanges in rice root microbes over time when plants were deprived of water for 11, 21 or 33 days. This kind ofintermittent drought condition is more common in rain-fed crops than terminal drought, Sundaresan said.As expected, the microbe community changes when water is taken away. More surprising is that the changespersisted for weeks after plants were watered again.“Rice plants carry a ‘memory’ of the drought episode in their root microbiota, so that plants that have experienceddrought can be distinguished solely on the basis of their microbiomes,” Sundaresan said.The team was able to culture and sequence the most abundant of these persistent microbes. It was a species ofStreptomyces that promotes growth of plant roots, a classic response to drought. The bacteria’s DNA includesgenetic code similar to plant genes for the growth hormone auxin.As extreme climate events become more common, crops are likely to experience more intermittent droughts, theauthors note. Understanding what makes plants more resilient to drought conditions could help reduce crop losses.ISPP Newsletter 51 (9) September 20219

International Society for Plant PathologyNEW ENZYME IDENTIFIED THAT INFECTS PLANTS - PAVING THE WAYFOR POTENTIAL DISEASE PREVENTIONUNIVERSITY OF YORK NEWS, 12 AUGUST 2021Scientists have identified an unusual enzyme that plays a major role in the infection of plants - and have shownthat disabling this enzyme effectively stops plant disease in its tracks. By discovering previously unexplored waysin which crop pathogens break through plant cell walls, the scientists have opened up opportunities for developingeffective disease control technologies. The new research, published in Science, describes a family of enzymes foundin a microorganism called Phytophthora infestans. The enzymes enable crop pathogens to degrade pectin - a keycomponent of plant cell walls - thereby enabling the pathogens to break through the plant’s defences to infect theplant.Led by biologists and chemists from the University of York, the international team of researchers discovered thenew class of enzymes that attack pectin called LPMOs. The team also showed that disabling the gene that encodesthis enzyme rendered the pathogen incapable of infecting the host.P. infestans is known to cause potato late blight, a devastating plant disease that led to widespread starvation inEurope and more than a million deaths in Ireland in the 1840s, in what became known as ‘The Great Famine’.Plant infection continues to cause billions of dollars’ worth of damage to global crop production each year andcontinues to threaten world food security. The identification of this new gene could open up new ways ofprotecting crops from this important group of pathogens.Lead author on the report, Dr Federico Sabbadin, from the Biology Department’s Centre for Novel AgriculturalProducts (CNAP), at the University of York said: “These new enzymes appear to be important in all plantpathogenic oomycetes, and this discovery opens the way for potentially powerful strategies in crop protection”.Professor Simon McQueen-Mason, also from CNAP, remarked that the work was “the result of interdisciplinarycollaborations between biologists and chemists at York along with plant pathologists at the James Hutton Institute,and genomicists at CNRS, with invaluable molecular insights from Professor Neil Bruce (CNAP) and ProfessorsGideon Davies and Paul Walton in the Department of Chemistry at York.” The research is part of the projectNew Enzymatic Virulence Factors in Phytophthora infestans, running from 2021 to 2025, and is supported witha 1m grant from the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, part of UK Research andInnovation (UKRI).ISPP Newsletter 51 (9) September 202110

International Society for Plant PathologyPLANT HEALTH WORKSHOPSPlant Health Workshops are interactive, learningexperiences that span several hours. Originally heldon-site at the American Phytopathological Society(APS) annual meetings, these workshops havebecome virtual so that anyone can attend Live or OnDemand. APS is offering the first of the sixupcoming workshops to both members andnonmembers for free so that everyone has theopportunity to experience these interactive,educational experiences for themselves!Workshop: APS Journals – Reviewing aManuscript 101Broadcast Date: Tuesday, October 5, 2021 2:00 4:00 PM CentralDescription: Peer-review of scientific researcharticles is the cornerstone of science. Participating asa reviewer is an important way to stay current in yourresearch area and to pay back the scientificcommunity. Unfortunately, many reviewers learnpeer-review only through experiences with reviews oftheir own papers and are not formally trained to actas reviewers. This workshop, presented by editors-in-ISPP Newsletter 51 (9) September 2021chief of the APS journals, will explain the reviewer'srole and responsibilities in the peer-review processand share best practices to help reviewers (andauthors) arrive at the best possible outcomes. Thisworkshop will provide the knowledge to improve thepeer-review experience both as a reviewer and as anauthor.Organisers: Alexander Karasev, University of Idaho (PlantDisease Editor-in-Chief)Chandrasekar Kousik, USDA AgriculturalResearch Service (Plant Health Progress Editorin-Chief)Nian Wang, University of Florida(Phytopathology Editor-in-Chief)Register now.11

International Society for Plant PathologyCURRENT VACANCIESThe Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources at the University of California, seeks to fill a position at therank of Plant Pathology Advisor. The Plant Pathology Advisor will implement an extension education and appliedproblem-solving research program in plant pathology for the agricultural clientele of Monterey, Santa Cruz andSan Benito counties. To assure full consideration, complete application packets must be received by 18 October2021, or open until filled. Further details about the position and how to apply are available in the PDF.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThanks to Stefania Antro, Grahame Jackson, Greg Johnson, Jan Leach, Andrea Masino, Sonam Sah, and ManjariSingh for contributions.ISPP Newsletter 51 (9) September 202112

International Society for Plant PathologyCOMING EVENTSAssociation of Applied Biologists VirtualConference - Thinking differently aboutsoilborne disease management10 November, 2021Website: e7d7c/summaryInternational Plant Health Conference “ProtectingPlant Health in a Changing World”Week of 12 May 2022Location to be advisedWebsite: en/c/1250609/7th International Conference of PakistanPhytopathological Society21 November - 23 November, 2021University of Agriculture Faisalabad and AyubAgricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad, PakistanWebsite: 7icpps.pakps.com4th International Erwinia Workshop2 July - 3 July, 2022Assisi, ItalyWebsite: www.icppb2020.comAustralasian Plant Pathology Society Conference –Staying Connected for Plant Health23 November - 26 November, 2021Online conferenceWebsite: appsconference.com.au/homeInternational Plant & Animal Genome XXIX8 January -12 January, 2022San Diego, California, USAWebsite: www.intlpag.org/2021/10thInternational IPM Symposium28 February - 3 March, 2022Denver, Colorado, USAWebsite: ipmsymposium.org/202116th Congress of the MediterraneanPhytopathological Union4 April - 8 April, 2022Limassol, CyprusWebsite: https://cyprusconferences.org/mpu2022/7th International Congress of Nematology1 May - 6 May, 2022Antibes Juan-les-Pins, FranceWebsite: www.alphavisa.com/icn/2020/index.phpISPP Newsletter 51 (9) September 202114th International Conference on Plant PathogenicBacteria3 July - 8 July, 2022Assisi, ItalyWebsite: www.icppb2020.com12th International Workshop on

international society for plant pathology ispp newsletter 51 (9) september 2021 2 ispp's global plant health assessment: a website is open and an international workshop conference is planned gpha conference secretariat: sonam sah* and manjari singh* * doctoral stude