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More info about this article: http:/Buried Pipe NDE Overview6th International CANDU ISI Workshop/NDT in Canada2016 ConferencePresenter: - Carl Latiolais Senior ProgramManger NDE ReliabilityAuthor: Steve Kenefick – Principal ProjectManager 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Overview Operational experience (OE) US inspection requirements Overview of NDE technologiesand methodologies EPRI related information andreferences2 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Buried Pipe Operating Experience Infrastructure in US is aging Buried and underground piping leaks have occurred– Low levels of Tritium has been detected on-site– Leaks to date have not had significant safety or radiologicalconsequences3 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

NSIAC 09-14 Initiative The Nuclear Strategic Issues Advisory Committee(NSIAC) developed an Initiative to address US industryburied pipe leaks– NSIAC is composed of US Chief Nuclear Officers (CNO)– Industry commitment, not regulation– Goal to provide “Reasonable Assurance” of structural and leakintegrity of buried pipe with special emphasis on piping thatcontained radioactive materials The NEI Buried Piping Integrity Task Force (BPTIF)was formed to develop direction to meet Initiative– Composed of utilities, NEI, INPO, Insurers, and EPRI– Developed NEI 09-14 Initiative – Guideline for the Managementof Underground Piping and Tank Integrity (Currently revision 4)4 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Scope of the NSIAC NEI 09-14 Initiative All buried and underground piping and tanksthat are outside of a building and below grade(whether or not they are in direct contact withthe soil) if they:– Are safety related,OR– Contain licensed material or are known to becontaminated with licensed materials,OR– Contain environmentally sensitive materials5 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Status of NEI 09-14 All milestones are complete– Corrosion has been found but many systems are ingood shape– Most corrosion is internal– Is now part of an ongoing engineering program NRC staff recommended to the Commission that nonew regulation is necessary “Commission agreed” Ongoing oversight– NRC to continue to monitor Objective a reduction in leak trends– INPO to continue to monitor6 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

License Renewal NRC license renewal addresses underground piping and tanks inNUREG-1801 “Generic Aging Lessons Learned” (GALL)– Provides aging management programs (AMP) to manage aging effects of systems,structures and components (SSC)– Applicant may propose alternatives methods Interim Staff Guidance (ISG)– LR-ISG-2011-03 – Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2AMP XI.M41, "Buried and Underground Piping and Tanks“ GALL requirements have evolved– Rigor of buried pipe requirements has increased– Second license renewal (after 60 years) requirements will be more demanding forearly implementers7 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Challenges of Examining Underground Pipe Many systems are difficult to access– Not designed or installed with inspection access in mind– Buried deep– In layers with other infrastructure– Under buildings Locations sometimes not well documented Some contain radioactive fluids8 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Challenges Presented by Underground PipeWide ranging set of variables require carefulselection of NDE technology Several material types: steel, cast iron, copper alloys,stainless, concrete, asbestos, PVC, polyethylene, FRP,etc. Diameters range from small bore to 10-ft Multiple joint types: butt-welded, socket welded,flanged, threaded, etc. Piping content include raw and treated water, gases,chemicals, and oil Coated and lined pipe: cement, high densitypolyethylene (HDPE), tar, tape wrap Varying damage mechanisms and flaw morphologies9 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Buried Pipe NDE Workshop Agenda Operational experience (OE) Inspection requirements Overview of NDE technologiesand methodologies EPRI references and training10 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Report 3002004395 – Nondestructive Evaluation: BuriedPipe NDE Reference Guide—Revision 3 Repository of buried pipe NDE information– Ultrasonic Technology– Guided Wave– Remote Field Testing– Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL)– Electromagnetic Technology– Radiography– Visual Technologies– Surface Profilometry– Leak Detection– Radar and Microwave Inspection11 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Report 3002004395 – Nondestructive Evaluation: BuriedPipe NDE Reference Guide—Revision 3 Repository for buried pipe NDEinformation–––––12Discontinuity MorphologiesTechnology overviewSensor technologyNDE selection considerationsIn-line Inspection Delivery Technology 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Buried Pipe NDE MethodsIn-lineIn-line & Outside PipeOutside pipeRemote field testingUltrasonicsGuided waveMagnetic flux leakageElectromagnetic techniquesRadiographySaturated Low FrequencyEddy CurrentElectromagnetic acoustictransducerRemote visualLaser profilometryIn-line Delivery Methods- Robotic Crawlers13- Flow through 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.- Pull through

Buried Pipe NDE Technology Capabilities (General)Method14Volumetric Measures Change inThickness ThicknessUltrasonicsXXXGuided WaveXRemote Field Testing (RFT)XGuided WaveXXMagnetic Flux Leakage (MFL)XXRadiographyXXSaturated Low Frequency EddyCurrentXXXXXLaser Profilometry / StructuredWhite LightXVisualX 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Buried Pipe NDE MethodsIn-lineIn-line & Outside PipeOutside pipeRemote field testingUltrasonicsGuided waveMagnetic flux leakageElectromagnetic techniquesRadiographySaturated Low FrequencyEddy CurrentElectromagnetic acoustictransducerRemote visualLaser profilometryIn-line Delivery Methods- Robotic Crawlers15- Flow through 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.- Pull through

Flow Through or Free Swimming In-line UltrasonicTechnology Ultrasonic tool inserted into piping system– Bi-directional tool – requiring one access point– Single direction tool – requires launcher and retriever Moved through piping by fluid flow– Fluid added behind tool– Speed of tool controlled by fluid flow Onboard pulser, receiver, digitizer, and datastorage Can collect data at feet per second Axial location of data measured with encoder Sophisticated data analysis software16 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Flow-through In-line Ultrasonic Array TechnologyTransducer array device Transducers positioned 360degrees around tool circumference– Number of transducers dependent ondiameter and desired coverage– Small-diameter tool may have asmany as 48 / large-diameter 100s oftransducers Small to large diameter pipe17 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Flow Through In-line Rotating 0-degree UltrasonicTransducer18 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Flow Through In-line Ultrasonic TechnologyTechnology has been used atmultiple plants (one example) 2300-feet of piping in 2.5 hours– 11.5 million measurements Ultrasonic Data Acquired– 2 degree circumferentialincrement– 10 mm axial increment Line contained several elbows– Maneuvered back to backelbows without issue19 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Robotically Driven Ultrasonic Rotating Array Technology Rotating head with 8 zero-degreetransducers High resolution cameras20 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

NDE Research Results – Phased Array Rapid scanning providing 100% coverage with increasedsensitivity to corrosion type flaws Imaging with permanent data storage capabilities Technical basis published in: Buried Pipe NDETechnology Assessment and Development Interim Report(1025219) Area scanned in picture is 500-mm by 660-mm– 80K measurements– Results can be extracted to a spreadsheet for analysis– Results shown in box Inspection vendors and utilities are using technology21 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMATS) Self-propelled EMAT and visualcrawler Probes are placed in contact withinside surface and rotated Detects and measures wall thickness Examine through coatings andlinings Reduced surface preparation Couplant is not needed22 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Buried Pipe NDE MethodsIn-lineIn-line & Outside PipeOutside pipeRemote field testingUltrasonicsGuided waveMagnetic flux leakageElectromagnetic techniquesRadiographySaturated Low FrequencyEddy CurrentElectromagnetic acoustictransducerRemote visualLaser profilometryIn-line Delivery Methods- Robotic Crawlers23- Flow through 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.- Pull through

Guided Wave Concept A guided wave is generated by a ring ofpiezoelectric transducers. The guided wave propagates down the pipe Changes in the cross-section of the pipe ormaterial properties create reflections.– Welds, flaws, corrosion, flanges, valves, wall thicknesschanges, etc. Reflections propagate back to the sensors Signal is plotted as a function of distance fromthe sensors Welds are typically used as reference markersand calibration for the test.24 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Guided Wave Data25 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Benefits of Guided Waves Efficient 100% volume inspection of a large section Can potentially propagate long lengths, although flanges and largevalves act as obstructions Inaccessible locations including wall penetrations, buried, coated,or obstructed areas Limited cleaning and excavation (required at locations wheretransducer ring is applied), but does require removal of coating Does not require access to inside of pipe or cleaning of inside pipewalls May inspect while system is operating Potential for periodic monitoring via permanently mounting sensors Technology available from 2” to 96” diameter26 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Challenges of Guided Waves Thick viscous coatings attenuate signal, thus reducingeffective inspection lengths and sensitivity to flaws Flanges are barriers for guided wave propagation –inspection beyond a flange is not possible Elbows distort the guided wave signal and reducesignal-to-noise making inspection beyond themdifficult Distinguishing flaws from other nonaxisymmetricreflectors such as welded attachments Quantifying size of damage is often not highlyaccurate27 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Key Guided Wave Resource Buried Pipe Guided Wave ExaminationReference Document (1019115)– Guided Wave Basic Theory– Data Acquisition– Data Analysis– Project Management– Literature Survey28 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Buried Pipe NDE MethodsIn-lineIn-line & Outside PipeOutside pipeRemote field testingUltrasonicsGuided waveMagnetic flux leakageElectromagnetic techniquesRadiographySaturated Low FrequencyEddy CurrentElectromagnetic acoustictransducerRemote visualLaser profilometryIn-line Delivery Methods- Robotic Crawlers29- Flow through 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.- Pull through

RFT Sensor and Energy Flow Uses Two coils–Exciter (transmitter or send)–Detector (receiver or pick-up)–Coils typically separated by 2 to 3 pipediameter Measures–“Time-of-flight” (phase shift) betweencoils which indirectly relates to the wallthickness–Signal strength (amplitude) betweencoils30 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.Courtesy of Russell NDE Systems Inc

Remote Field Testing (RFT) In-line pipe inspections technique– Metallic pipe such as carbon steel, cast iron, and ductile iron– Pipe diameters ranging from 2-inches to 7 feet Can measure wall thickness Equal sensitivity to external and internal flaws Can be used in fluids such as water and oil31 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

RFT Application Sensors can operate approximately 1-inch fromthe pipe surface allowing for examinationthrough:– Internal scales, tubercles, sand, deposits, and layers ofmud– Liners such as high density polyethylene– Concrete lined piping– Coatings such as cement, bitumen, and cold tar wrap– Operates both in air or water Reduces / eliminates the need for extensive precleaning in most situations32 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Buried Pipe NDE MethodsIn-lineIn-line & Outside PipeOutside pipeRemote field testingUltrasonicsGuided waveMagnetic flux leakageElectromagnetic techniquesRadiographySaturated Low FrequencyEddy CurrentElectromagnetic acoustictransducerRemote visualLaser profilometryIn-line Delivery Methods- Robotic Crawlers33- Flow through 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.- Pull through

Saturated Low Frequency Eddy Current (SLOFEC)Loss-of-material on the far surface alters the magneticflux, which in turn alters the eddy currents Loss-of-material on thenear surface directlyinterrupt the flow of eddycurrents. These two responses alterthe phase angle of theeddy current34 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Saturated Low Frequency Eddy Current (SLOFEC) In-line pipe inspections technique forferromagnetic materials– Detection and resolution of pitting– Can differentiate between inside andoutside surface discontinuities– Can tolerate coatings and liftoff from pipesurface– Cannot measure wall thickness35 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

NDE Technology: Saturated Low Frequency Eddy Current(SLOFEC) Robotics 36Examines through coating and liningsSelf-propelled tethered robotTraversed 1.5-diameter bendsTechnology available and used in otherindustries 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Buried Pipe NDE MethodsIn-lineIn-line & Outside PipeOutside pipeRemote field testingUltrasonicsGuided waveMagnetic flux leakageElectromagnetic techniquesRadiographySaturated Low FrequencyEddy CurrentElectromagnetic acoustictransducerRemote visualLaser profilometryIn-line Delivery Methods- Robotic Crawlers37- Flow through 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.- Pull through

Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) Magnetic lines of flux flow between the magnetic poles– Areas of corrosion or cracking interrupt this flow Flux lines are monitored with various sensor types placed between the magnetpoles Data is recorded and subsequently analyzed to identify and characterizedamageCourtesy of Inline Devices – A Mears Group Company38 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL)In-line pipe inspections of ferromagnetic materials Detection and resolution of pittingCannot measure wall thickness but can measure changes in wall thicknessCannot differentiate between ID and OD flawsCan tolerate coatingsFast scan speedsPhoto curtsey of Microline Technology Corp39 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

MFL Field ApplicationExtensively used to examinetransmission pipelinesCourtesy of Inline Devices – A Mears Group Company40 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Buried Pipe NDE MethodsIn-lineIn-line & Outside PipeOutside pipeRemote field testingUltrasonicsGuided waveMagnetic flux ed Low FrequencyEddy CurrentElectromagnetic acoustictransducerRemote visualLaser profilometryIn-line Delivery Methods- Robotic Crawlers41- Flow through 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.- Pull through

Pulsed Eddy Current Detection of area corrosion inferromagnetic materials– Non-contact technique– Can be used to examine throughliners, insulation, and coatings– Broad assessment – may misslocalized damage– Requires minimal cleaning– Spot measurement– Can be slowTra s itterCurre tReceiverA plifierMag eticFieldA alysis ofEddy Curre t Sig alTra s itterReceiverWall Thick essMeasure e tsSheeti gI sulatioEddy Curre tSteel Wall42 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.Se sorCoils

Pulsed Eddy Current Probe generates multiple frequencies in thematerial– Measurements are made in the time domain– Features near the inspection coils will be seenfirst and more distant features will be seenlater in time43 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Buried Pipe NDE MethodsIn-lineIn-line & Outside PipeOutside pipeRemote field testingUltrasonicsGuided waveMagnetic flux leakageElectromagnetic techniquesRadiographySaturated Low FrequencyEddy CurrentElectromagnetic acoustictransducerRemote visualLaser profilometryIn-line Delivery Methods- Robotic Crawlers44- Flow through 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.- Pull through

3D Optical Scanner Development funded by EPRI, Pipeline ResearchCouncil International (PRCI), and Chevron– Developments demonstrated 2012 Q4– Now commercially available– Identify region of interest and extracts; length, depth,area extent, and volume loss45 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Summary The US Industry committed to develop processes tomanage buried pipe degradation– Goal was to provide “Reasonable Assurance” of structural and leakintegrity EPRI has worked with the nuclear and petrochemicalindustry to develop a comprehensive NDE guide that assistsnuclear utilities meet this commitment US regulators have accepted the industry process46 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

RelatedInformation andReferences47 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

EPRI Buried Pipe NDE Reports48Report TitleID NumberNondestructive Evaluation: Buried Pipe NDE Reference Guide—Revision 33002004395Nondestructive Evaluation: Assessment and Development of Buried Pipe NDETechnology (NDE)3002000463Nondestructive Evaluation: Assessment and Development of Buried Pipe NDETechnology, Addendum 13002005431Development of Ultrasonic Phased Array Technology for Corrosion3002004401Guidelines for Obtaining Credit for Buried Pipe Guided Wave Examinations3002000468Buried Pipe Guided Wave Examination Reference Document (NDE)1019115Buried Pipe Direct Examinations Through Coatings1025228 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

EPRI Buried Pipe NDE Reports49Report TitleID NumberNondestructive Evaluation: Buried Pipe In-Line NDE Depth Sizing Procedure1025231Nondestructive Evaluation: Quantification of Real Corrosion in Buried Piping3002003023Nondestructive Evaluation: Novel Ultrasonic Sensor Technology for StructureMonitoring3002003031Guided Wave Analysis Tools for Buried Pipe3002000466Nondestructive Evaluation: Guided Wave Analysis Tools1025212Nondestructive Evaluation: Guided Wave Status Report1022929Nondestructive Evaluation: Further Developments of Guided Wave ExaminationApplication 2009 Status Report1019116 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

EPRI Buried Pipe NDE Reports50Report TitleID NumberNondestructive Evaluation: Further Developments of Guided Wave ExaminationApplication1016675Nondestructive Evaluation: Buried Pipe Structural Health Monitoring1025213Remote Field Technology Assessment for Piping Inspection Including Buried andLimited Access Components1021153Catawba Field Trial of EPRI’s Large Diameter Buried Pipe Instrumented Vehicle1016676Intermediate Diameter Buried Piping Instrumented Vehicle--Evaluation1022926 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

EPRI Tank NDE Reports51Report TitleID NumberAssessment and Evaluation of Nondestructive Evaluation Technologies forTanks and Containment Liners3002005448Nondestructive Evaluation: NDE for Tanks and Containment Liners3002000462Inspection Methods for Tanks and Containment Liners1025215Inspection Methodologies for Buried Pipes and Tanks1021561Nondestructive Evaluation: High-Density Polyethylene NDE Technology3002000439Nondestructive Evaluation: Technique Development to Evaluate the Joint Strengthof High-Density Polyethylene Butt Fused Pipe Joints3002003032 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Together Shaping the Future of Electricity52 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

Buried and underground piping leaks have occurred . Challenges Presented by Underground Pipe Wide ranging set of variables require careful selection of NDE technology Several material types: steel, cast iron, copper alloys,