z/OS Performance Analysis WLM Update Db2 Performance AnalysisEPV Performance University1

WLM and software pricingEPV Performance University2

Agenda Introduction Mobile workload pricing Container pricingEPV Performance University3

IntroductionEPV Performance University4

Introduction In the last years WLM has been more and more involved in the manymechanisms invented by IBM marketing people to provide ways tomitigate the z/OS environment software costs The first step was the introduction of the specialty engines (zAAP andzIIP) where WLM was marginally involved The next steps were the 4-hour rolling average mechanism and the softcapping technique implementation where WLM started playing afundamental role in major software (e.g. z/OS, CICS, IMS, and Db2) costcontrolEPV Performance University5

Introduction In 2014, IBM introduced Mobile Workload Pricing: a new pricing modeldesigned “to mitigate the impact of mobile workloads on sub-capacitylicense charges and provide a more cost-competitive software” The initial implementation was too complex for the customers tomanage so it was not very successful After a couple of years, IBM provided a much easier implementation ofthis pricing option involving again WLMEPV Performance University6

Introduction At the end of 2017, IBM announced Container Pricing. “Container Pricing makes pricing simpler and more economical forqualified solutions. It's a framework for hosting simplified and flexiblesoftware pricing for qualified solutions running on the z13 and z14 IBMprocessors, and allows specific workloads to be metered, reported on,and optionally capped, whether on a dedicated LPAR or colocated withexisting workloads on an existing LPAR with no direct impact on your 4Hour Rolling Average.”EPV Performance University7

Introduction With Container Pricing you may run qualified solutions, inside a logicalcontainer in the same LPAR where traditional workload run, and have aseparate, lower price for the workload inside the container, without anydirect impact on traditional workload pricing The burden of managing co-located qualified solutions is again chargedto WLM Unfortunately, the technical implementation in WLM is, in this case,more complex and invasiveEPV Performance University8

Introduction The last evolution of z/OS software pricing is Tailored Fit Pricing (TFP) It allows two options:– Enterprise Capacity solution– Enterprise Consumption solution Both options eliminate the need to measure the 4-hour rolling averageand the need to use the soft capping functions to manage the softwarecosts So WLM should not be involved anymoreEPV Performance University9

Mobile workloadpricingEPV Performance University10

Mobile workload pricing On May 6th 2014 IBM announced Mobile Workload Pricing for z/OS(MWP): a new pricing model designed “to mitigate the impact of mobileworkloads on sub-capacity license charges and provide a more costcompetitive software” Mobile workloads have to run in one or more of the Mobile WorkloadPricing Defining Programs (CICS, DB2, IMS, MQ and WebSphere) What is more interesting for customers is that the contribution ofmobile workloads to the monthly peak of the 4HRA is discounted by60%EPV Performance University11

Mobile workload pricing After more than 2 years IBM found that MWP had not been very successful Not in line with the “cut z/OS costs” mantra is repeated everywhere Some issues are related to an addendum to the contract and to the high levelof discretion IBM has, in accepting or not the process put in place by users, toidentify mobile workloads From the technical point the major issue is that customers have to:– collect and process a very large number of SMF (CICS, DB2, MQ andWebSphere) and IMS log records– produce CSV files, aggregating the consumption of mobile workloads inthe required format, and provide them as input to SCRT every monthEPV Performance University12

Mobile workload pricing To solve the technical problem, WLM enhancements have beenintroduced which have greatly simplified mobile workload identificationand measurement WLM classification rules allow to classify mobile transactions processedby the subsystems using a Reporting Attribute Of course IBM has still to approve your rulesEPV Performance University13

Mobile workload pricing Rule example to assign DDF transactions, processed by DB2X and havingthe Correlation Information starting with MOBTRX , to the RMOBTRXreport classEPV Performance University14

Mobile workload pricing To assign to RMOBDDF the new MOBILE Reporting Attribute you have toscroll to the right twice by using the PF11 keyEPV Performance University15

Mobile workload pricing The default value is NONEOther possible values are CATEGORYA and CATEGORYBThey are provided to classify public cloud transactions (zWPC)See ‘IBM z Systems Workload Pricing for Cloud for z/OS can reduce thecost of growth for public cloud transactions’ - IBM United StatesSoftware Announcement 216-319, dated July 26, 2016EPV Performance University16

Mobile workload pricing To allow measuring MWP with CICS and IMS, new SMF 72 metricsproviding CPU usage by transactions have been introduced from CICS5.3 and IMS 14:– R723TSUCP, SU consumed by transactions, executed on GCP– R723MSUCP, SU consumed by transactions, classified with reporting attributeMOBILE, executed on GCP– R723TSUSP, SU consumed by transactions, executed on zIIP– R723MSUSP, SU consumed by transactions, classified with reporting attributeMOBILE, executed on zIIPEPV Performance University17

Mobile workload pricing– R723TSUOCP, SU consumed by transactions, eligible to run on zIIP, but executedon GCP– R723MSUOCP, SU consumed by transactions, classified with reporting attributeMOBILE, eligible to run on zIIP, but executed on GCP SMF70LACM has been added to SMF 70 to provide the 4-hour rollingaverage MSUs consumed by transactions classified with the MOBILEreporting attribute; it’s used by SCRT to apply the discount for Mobileworkloads Similar metrics are provided for CATEGORYA and CATEGORYBEPV Performance University18

Mobile workload pricingExercise 1 A CICS region has been assigned to the CICSMOB service class and by usingthe “old” metrics you can see its CPU usage in the peak hour is 792 CPUseconds The new R723TSUCP metric will tell you that the portion of the region CPUused by transactions is 58.320.000 service units The new R723MSUCP metric will tell you that the portion of the region CPUused by mobile transactions is 32.400.000 service units The system SU rate is 90.000What is the region overhead?What is the percentage of 1 CPU used by mobile transactions?EPV Performance University19

Exercise 1 CPU seconds used by transactions is:58.320.000 SU / 90.000 SU/sec 648 sec CPU seconds used by mobile transactions is:32.400.000 SU / 90.000 SU/sec 360 sec Region overhead is:(792 sec – 648 sec) / 792 sec 18,2% Percentage of 1 CPU used by mobile transactions360 sec / 3600 sec 10%EPV Performance University20

Mobile workload pricing You have to remember that:– “old”region consumptions include transaction consumptions (R723TSUCP)– region overhead can be estimated by difference– MOBILE transaction consumptions (R723MSUCP) is included in transactionconsumptions (R723TSUCP)EPV Performance University21

Mobile workload pricingFrom the “Using IBM z/OS WLM to Measure Mobile and Other Workloads”IBM Red Paper - REDP-5359-00EPV Performance University22

Mobile workload pricingFrom the “Using IBM z/OS WLM to Measure Mobile and Other Workloads”IBM Red Paper - REDP-5359-00EPV Performance University23

Mobile workload pricing It’s very important you clearly understand the MWP discountmechanism What is really relevant is the amount of MSUs used by mobile workloadwhen the monthly peak of the 4HRA occurs This is the amount of MSUs that will be discountedEPV Performance University24

Mobile workload pricing Example showingone month ofreal data Peak of Mobile4HRA very high But not in thesame hour ofPeak 4HRAEPV Performance University25

Mobile workload pricing Only 554 MSUswill be eligiblefor discount The savingallowed byMobile WorkloadPricing for thismonth will be332 MSUsEPV Performance University26

Mobile workload pricing The adjustedvalue of the peakof 4HRA is 6.878MSUsEPV Performance University27

Mobile workload pricing 60% of mobile workloads already discounted in WLC viewsEPV Performance University28

Mobile workload pricing Report class views enhanced for mobile workloadsEPV Performance University29

Container pricingEPV Performance University30

Container pricing IBM recently introduced Container Pricing Three solutions are enabled: Application Development and Test Solution – aggressive pricing New Application Solution – highly competitive pricing for new z/OSapplications Payments Pricing Solution – business metric tied directly to payment volumesEPV Performance University31

Container pricing A new solution may be defined as being colocated with other solutionsin existing z/OS images (LPARs), in separate LPARs or multiple LPARs The colocated solution has no direct impact to the rolling four-houraverage. Therefore, introduction of a new workload in the sameproduction system has minimal or no impact on the pricing of existingworkloadsEPV Performance University32

Container pricing The colocated solution can be measured and its MSU utilizationoptionally capped, independent of other workloads The system records data about the colocated solution for accounting(SCRT reporting) purposes SCRT analyzes the recorded data and produces a report for consumptionby fulfillment systems, removing the workload’s MSU utilization fromthe rolling four-hour averageEPV Performance University33

Container pricing – Step 1 Once a solution is agreed upon with the client, with an agreed price,IBM Sales initiates a sales order, which triggers the creation of a solutionID The IBM-provided solution ID is a 64-character string representing anapproved workload with an entitled MSU capacity in the form of a fullcap pricing container used for billing purposesEPV Performance University34

Container pricing – Step 2 Tenant resource groups (and tenant report classes) have to be createdin WLM to identify the workloads that constitute the approved solutionworkload The tenant resource group also supports optional capping of theworkload’s MSU utilization When defining the tenant resource group the 64-character solution IDthat was obtained in the prior step has to be provided That is the link between the approved workload and SCRT’s evaluation,and exclusion from the R4HAEPV Performance University35

Container pricing – Step 3 When the WLM policy including the tenant resource group and tenantreport classes definitions is activated and the solution executes, WLMrecords data related to the workload RMF then writes each tenant resource group’s consumption data to SMFType 70, Subtype 1 and SMF 72 subtype 3 records SMF 89 records are also writtenEPV Performance University36

Container pricing – Step 4 When SCRT is invoked later by the client, it reads the tenant resourcegroup data in SMF 70 and 89 records and reports MSU utilization foreach Container in the SCRT report, which includes also the solution IDs CPU resource that is reported for the address spaces and independentenclaves that are defined to Container Pricing are subtracted by SCRTfrom the LPAR four-hour rolling averageEPV Performance University37

Container pricing – Tech details You have to create Tenant Resource Groups They include Tenant Report Classes (not service classes as standardResource Groups) A workload can’t be classified both in Resource Groups and TenantResource Groups Only address spaces and enclaves can be classified in Tenant ReportClassesEPV Performance University38

Container pricing – Tech details New options addedfor Container Pricing You have to defineTenant ResourceGroups first Then the TenantReport ClassesFrom “CONTAINER PRICING FOR IBM Z” - White paper - WP102719EPV Performance University39

Container pricing – Tech details You can leave theSolution ID emptyfor test purposes If you set anincomplete orinvalid Solution IDyou will get an errorFrom “CONTAINER PRICING FOR IBM Z” - White paper - WP102719EPV Performance University40

Container pricing – Tech details Tenant Report Classesare the basic elementsfeeding TenantResource Groups The major differencecompared to ReportClasses is that in the“traditional” WLMdefinitions onlyService Classes (notReport Classes) maybe associated to aResource GroupFrom “CONTAINER PRICING FOR IBM Z” - White paper - WP102719EPV Performance University41

Container pricing – Tech details In this example aCICS region has beenclassified into theUNIDBDGR TenantReport Class UNIDBDGR isassociated to theUNIDBDG1 TenantResource GroupFrom “CONTAINER PRICING FOR IBM Z” - White paper - WP102719EPV Performance University42

Container pricing – Issues (1/2) Issues to address (all customers) You need to include Container Pricing Solution ids and their eventual cappingvalues in the WLM definitions If you use Resource Groups, you have to check that the Tenant Report Classesdon’t include a Report Class coming from a Service Class included in a ResourceGroup It's not clear how and if you can avoid that existing workloads will increase theirsoftware costs (indirect 4HRA increase) when Containers don't use theirassigned capacity Will ISV accept Container pricing?EPV Performance University43

Container pricing – Issues (2/2) Issues to address (not EPV customers) A lot of modifications are required in SMF 70 and 72 data collection New WLM reporting is needed for resource groups and report classes New complex reporting is needed for the 4-hour rolling averageEPV Performance University44

Container pricing – SMF 70 SMF70 TRG NAME, tenant resource group nameSMF70 TRG DESC, tenant resource group description (optional)SMF70 TRG TNTID, tenant identifier (optional)SMF70 TRG TNTNAME, tenant name (optional)SMF70 TRG SBID, solution IDSMF70 TRG SUCP, service units on CPs consumed by TRGSMF70 TRG SUIFA, service units on zAAPs consumed by TRGSMF70 TRG SUSUP, service units on zIIPs consumed by TRGSMF70 TRG LAC, long-term average service on general purpose processors inmillions of service units per hour consumed by TRGEPV Performance University45

Container pricing – SMF 72 R723MFLG, tenant report class flagR723GGTF, tenant resource group flagR723GGTI, tenant identifierR723GGTN, tenant nameR723GGKY, solution IDEPV Performance University46

Container pricing – SMF 72 Example tenant resource groups in EPVSYSTEM RESOURCE GROUP CPU - Fri, 06 Oct 2017 - SYS1 - MSUSYSTEM RESGROUP ORESGRPTOTAL824,210,84,6YES 13,11013,1 8,9178,9 126,61419,8 8,64,86,7 21,8 29,54,46,6 19,3 3,4 18,6 21,8575,776 169,9 4539,9 54,7 117,4279,6 206,1 194,4 168,6 211,8 223,5 214,4386,9 318,5 405,2 230,6 294 330,7 492,8EPV Performance University17IDSOLUTION ID131,316,71,994,1 TENANT1160,2404,347

Container pricing – SMF 72 Example tenant report classes in EPVSYSTEM RC CPU - Fri, 06 Oct 2017 - SYS1 - MSURPTCLASS PERIOD RPTGROUP CAT TRC89101112131415161718IDRBATCHOP2ZOTHER58,7 64,366,370,258,328,8 36,5 38,7 158,1 156,7 278,2RBATCHI1ZOTHER5,314,960,728,68,817,3 26,1 33,18,113,745,4RWASAP11ZOTHERY28,4 25,437,127,925,919,1 26,7 25,223,925,826,9 TENRC1RCICSAP11ZOTHERY55,6 37,133,12531,529,1 44,8 31,523,115,713,1 TENRC2RSYSMSG1ZOTHER30,5 ,6 14,212,510,64,35,23,84,918,93,35,5EPV Performance UniversitySOLUTION ID48

Container pricing – SMF 70 Example SYSTEM WLC USAGE in EPVSYSTEM WLC USAGE - Fri, 06 Oct 2017 - SYS1METRICCEC MSU8910111213141516172.358,00 2.358,00 2.358,00 2.358,00 2.358,00 2.358,00 2.358,00 2.358,00 2.358,00 2.358,00IMAGE MSUGROUP 5695695695695DEF MSUMIN ENTROLLING 90491,1397,7MAX ENT% ACT SOFTCAPP6950695069506950695069506950695069506950% WLM SOFTCAPPGROUP MSU AVAABS MSU 2,777,464,376,5EPV Performance University49

Container and Mobile pricing Is it possible to exploit together Container and Mobile Workloadpricing? The answer is NOEPV Performance University50

Questions?EPV Performance University51

At the end of 2017, IBM announced Container Pricing. “ontainer Pricing makes pricing simpler and more economical for qualified solutions. It's a framework for hosting simplified and flexible software pricing for qualified solutions running on the z13 and z14 IBM processors,