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ESCONDIDOFIREDEPARTMENTCer tified PumpOperatorH Y DR AU L I CSWORK BOOK

Table of ContentsIntroduction . iPurpose . iReference. iDirections for Use . iStandards for Hydraulics Calculations. iChapter 1: Determining Engine Pressure .1Nozzle Pressure .10Friction Loss – Hose Diameter .21Friction Loss – Length of Hoselay .25Appliances.29Elevation Differential – Head .33Summary .37Chapter II: Working the Basic Hydraulics Formula .38Determining Nozzle Pressure .40Computing Friction Loss.48Reducing Friction Loss .54IFSTA Friction Loss Formula.61Determining Friction Loss for Appliances .67Principles of Head Pressure .73Computing Head in Structures .85Computing Head for Wildland Hoselays .90Summary .96Chapter III: Determining Nozzle Reaction .100Chapter IV: Relay Pumping .114Summary .132Chapter V: Foam Operations .134Summary .152Chapter VI: Using the Field Hydraulics Reference Sheet .153How to Use the Field Hydraulic Reference Sheet .155How to Use the Wildland Hydraulics Reference Sheet.164Solving Engine Pressure – Multiple Lines .168Chapter VII: Solving Hydraulics Problems.174Appendix .217Field Hydraulics Reference Sheets . 217-218

IntroductionThe role of the Fire Engineer is vital within the fire service. The Fire Engineer must supplyadequate hose streams with the proper amount of water at effective, yet safe pressuresin order to accomplish one of the fire service’s basic missions – fire control. Expert controlof the pump and of the hydraulics system of the fire engine is crucial.Supplying the proper amount of water under the right amount of pressure is no easy task.The Fire Engineer must rely upon experience and quick effective guides to perform thisvital function. In an emergency situation, there is no time to figure out long hydraulicsformulas or perform exacting calculations.PurposeThis work book has been developed with the intent of allowing prospective Engineers tobecome proficient at basic fire service hydraulics on their own, at their own pace, using astandard, practical set of rules and a single formula. This work book also sets Departmentstandards in the application of fire service hydraulics.ReferenceThe International Fire Service Training Association (IFSTA) training materials.Directions for UseThis work book is set up to help you progress from simple to more complex computations.At each step you will be asked questions, and in most cases you will be given a choice ofanswers. When you choose the answer that you think is right, you will be directed to turnto another page where you will be given appropriate feedback.In hydraulics problems there is an acceptable margin of error. If pressures are within 5 to10 pounds per square inch (PSI) of the required PSI, little effectiveness is lost. Keep inmind that gauges are not 100% accurate.Standards for Hydraulics CalculationsHydraulics FormulasStudies have identified that as a result of the new advanced materials being used by themanufacturers of hose and nozzles, the friction loss formula (2Q2 Q) is inaccurate. Thenew materials are much less resistant to water flow, and therefore have less friction loss.Consequently, IFSTA has developed the Coefficient Formula to accommodate the newhose and/or nozzles. The Coefficient Formula (Coefficient x Diameter Squared x Lengthof Lay) should be used by all personnel to calculate hydraulics problems.i

Variable GPM NozzlesBased on information gathered from IFSTA, the manufacturers, and other agenciescurrently utilizing these nozzles, the following GPM settings have been established as theDepartment’s standard:NozzleHoseSetting2 ½”1 ½”1 ½”1 ½”1”2 ½”1 ¾”1 ½”1 ½”1”250 GPM150 GPM20/95 GPM (wildland nozzle combination)*50 GPM (wildland nozzle – tip)20 GPM (wildland nozzle combination)Note: All combination nozzles are pumped at 100 PSI Nozzle Pressure.Note: 1 ½” wildland nozzles currently being used have settings for 20 GPM and 95 GPM.For this reason, there is no standard GPM setting established for this nozzle.These standards have been established for consistency and for testing purposes. Thisdoes not restrict the firefighter from controlling the GPM flow; however, changes in GPMflow need to be communicated to the pump operator so that appropriate calculations canbe made.ii

Chapter IDetermining Engine Pressure(EP)Hydraulics WorkbookPage 1 of 216Revised 2-16

EP NP FL A ( ) HDETERMINING ENGINE PRESSURE (EP)Engine pressure is the amount of pressure, in pounds per square inch (PSI), indicated onthe pressure gauge or any given orifice discharge gauge. Stream pattern remaining thesame, engine pressure is the major controlling factor that changes nozzle pressure andvolume discharge. Adjusting the pump throttle changes engine pressure. The formulafor determining engine pressure is:EP NP FL A ( ) HGiven:EP Engine PressureNP Nozzle PressureFL Friction Loss per 100 feet of hose.A Appliance (if applicable)( ) increase in elevation above pump(-) decrease in elevation below pumpTURN TO PAGE 3Hydraulics WorkbookPage 2 of 216Revised 2-16

EP NP FL A ( ) HWhat is Engine Pressure?1) The amount of pressure in PSI at the discharge side of the pump.TURN TO PAGE 42) The amount of pressure in PSI discharging at the nozzle.TURN TO PAGE 5Hydraulics WorkbookPage 3 of 216Revised 2-16

EP NP FL A ( ) HYou said, “Engine pressure is the amount of pressure in PSI at the discharge side of thepump.”YOU ARE CORRECT!MOVE ON TO PAGE 9Hydraulics WorkbookPage 4 of 216Revised 2-16

EP NP FL A ( ) HYou said, “Engine pressure is the amount of pressure in PSI discharging at the nozzle.”You apparently don’t understand engine pressure; so let’s try again.Visualize yourself running the pump on a fire engine. You are standing at the pump level.You are running the throttle out, which increases the RPM’s of the pump, and notice thepressure gauge at the pump panel increase from 50 PSI to 100 PSI. This is energycreated by the pump which makes the water move through the plumbing on the fire engineand hoses connected to the discharges on the fire engine. The engine pressure is tellingyou the amount of pressure being developed at the discharge side of the pump and up tothe discharge outlets on the fire engine. The pressure registering on the engine pressuregauge will not be the same at the nozzle because energy (pressure) is being used upovercoming friction in the hose. Energy (pressure) is also used up by pumping water tolevels higher than the pump. Water weighs 8.35 pounds per gallon and this weight isusing up some of the engine pressure.TURN TO PAGE 6Hydraulics WorkbookPage 5 of 216Revised 2-16

EP NP FL A ( ) HSo Engine Pressure is?1) The amount of pressure (PSI) discharging at the nozzle.TURN TO PAGE 72) The amount of pressure (PSI) registering on the engine pressure gauge, and is theamount of pressure (PSI) at the discharge side of the pump and all dischargeoutlets.TURN TO PAGE 8Hydraulics WorkbookPage 6 of 216Revised 2-16

EP NP FL A ( ) HYou said, “Engine pressure is the amount of pressure (PSI) discharging at the nozzle.”THAT IS INCORRECTRETURN TO PAGE 2 AND TRY AGAINHydraulics WorkbookPage 7 of 216Revised 2-16

EP NP FL A ( ) HYou said, “Engine pressure is the amount of pressure (PSI) registering on the enginepressure gauge and is the amount of pressure (PSI) at the discharge side of the pumpand all discharge outlets.”FANTASTIC!NOW TURN TO PAGE 9Hydraulics WorkbookPage 8 of 216Revised 2-16

EP NP FL A ( ) HFacts that you must know as a Pump Operator in order to determine engine pressure[EP NP FL A H] are:1) Nozzle Pressure (NP)2) Size of tips or nozzle (FL)3) Diameter of hose (FL)4) Length of hose in lay (FL)5) Appliance (A)6) Elevation differential either above or below from pump to nozzle ( H)These six facts are needed in all cases to determine engine pressure. So make sure youunderstand these facts and write them on your scratch paper or record them in yourmemory bank.TURN TO PAGE 10Hydraulics WorkbookPage 9 of 216Revised 2-16

EP NP FL A ( ) HNOZZLE PRESSURE (NP)Fire streams are divided into two general categories: solid streams and fog streams.1) A solid stream is used when a large concentration of water is desired in onespecific area or when a long reach is required. There are two basic ways ofapplying water on fires through solid stream nozzles: hand held tips on nozzles,and tips on master stream appliances. Through extensive testing it was found thaton hand held tips the best operating nozzle pressure is 50 PSI. On master streamappliances the best operating nozzle pressure is 80 PSI.2) Fog streams produce the most water surface for heat absorption, but also havethe shortest range. Fog nozzles are designed to work most effectively at 100 PSI.Fog nozzles are used on hand held lines as well as on master stream appliance.While being used either way, the nozzle pressure would be the same, 100 PSI.TURN TO PAGE 11Hydraulics WorkbookPage 10 of 216Revised 2-16

EP NP FL A ( ) HWhen computing hydraulics problems, you must include the nozzle pressure.following nozzle pressures won’t change and must be added in on all problems:TheTIPS – Solid StreamsHand held lines50 PSI NPMaster Stream appliances80 PSI NPCOMBINATION NOZZLES – Fog StreamsHand held and Master Stream appliances100 PSI NPTURN TO PAGE 12Hydraulics WorkbookPage 11 of 216Revised 2-16

EP NP FL A ( ) HWhen computing engine pressure, you must include the nozzle pressure. Whichare the four standard nozzle pressures? (Choose either #1 or #2 below.)1)Hand held tipsMaster stream tipsHand held fog nozzlesMaster stream fog nozzles50 PSI NP80 PSI NP100 PSI NP100 PSI NPTURN TO PAGE 132)Hand held tipsMaster stream tipsHand held fog nozzlesMaster stream fog nozzles80 PSI NP50 PSI NP80 PSI NP150 PSI NPTURN TO PAGE 14Hydraulics WorkbookPage 12 of 216Revised 2-16

EP NP FL A ( ) HCORRECT!Nozzle pressure is the easiest part of the hydraulics problem because all you have toremember is 50 NP, 80 NP, and 100 NP. So don’t forget to add it in the problem.TURN TO PAGE 15Hydraulics WorkbookPage 13 of 216Revised 2-16

EP NP FL A ( ) HWRONGPerhaps the statement on nozzle pressure wasn’t clear enough, soGO BACK TO PAGE 11 and read the explanation again.Hydraulics WorkbookPage 14 of 216Revised 2-16

EP NP FL A ( ) HWhen solving hydraulics problems, you must always consider Nozzle Pressure (NP),Friction Loss (FL), Appliance (A), and Head ( H) in order to come up with the correctEngine Pressure (EP).A practical way of using this formula in the field is to organize your scratch paper so thatyou will not forget to solve a part of the hydraulics problem.EXAMPLE:(Scratch Paper)NP FL (Blank area to figure problem)A H EP What are the four segments of the hydraulics formula needed when determiningEngine Pressure for any hoselay?Fill in the blanks:EP ( )TURN TO PAGE 16Hydraulics WorkbookPage 15 of 216Revised 2-16

EP NP FL A ( ) HIf you answered EP NP FL A ( ),YOU ARE DOING GREAT!TURN TO PAGE 17Hydraulics WorkbookPage 16 of 216Revised 2-16

EP NP FL A ( ) HSIZE OF TIPS OR NOZZLES (FL)The size of the tip or nozzle, plus pressure, determines the gallons per minute (GPM).As an example: a ½ inch tip at 50 PSI flows 52 GPM, and a 1 inch tip at 50 PSI flows210 GPM. The (GP