Transcription

Stronger togetherCalendar for Cultural Diversity 2021

Stronger togetherCalendar for Cultural Diversity 2021Lily Rose – Year 4 – Excelsior Public SchoolUnited Nations (UN) observances 2021Languages for 2021The United Nations observes designated international days, weeks, years and decades, each with atheme or topic. These observances contribute to the achievement of the purposes of the UN Charterand promote awareness of and action on important political, social, cultural, humanitarian or humanrights issues. They provide a useful means for the promotion of international and national action andstimulate interest in United Nations activities and programs. Many of the themes are relevant to theschool curriculum and community and can be observed at school and/or used as focal pointsin lesson planning.JanuaryTongan (Faka-Tongan) is an official and national language in the Kingdom of Tonga. It is a member ofthe Polynesian branch of the Austronesian languages and is spoken by about 103,000 people mainlyin Tonga. It is also spoken in Samoa, Australia, Canada, Fiji, New Zealand, Niue and Wallis Island. It isclosely related to Niuean, Wallisian and Samoan. Tongan is mainly a spoken language.It was first written by missionaries in the early 19th century using a number of different spellingsystems. The current system was promulgated by the Privy Council of Tonga in 1943. A few literarypublications have been made in Tongan, including translations of the Bible and the Book of Mormon.Other publications include daily newspapers and weekly and monthly magazines.For more information on the following years and decades see the UN website.There are almost 4,500 students from Tongan speaking backgrounds in NSW public schools.The traditional Tongan calendar was based on the phases of the moon and had 13 months. The mainpurpose of the calendar for Tongans was to determine the time for the planting and cultivation ofyams, which were Tonga’s most important staple food. Mid December to early January is Lihamuiand mid-January to early February is Vaimu’a.FebruarySpanish (español/ castellano) is a Romance language with approximately 470 million speakers, 410million of whom speak it as a first language while the remainder speak it as a second language. Asignificant number of people also speak Spanish as a foreign language. It is the language of Spain andan official language of another 19 countries mainly in Central and South America.2021 - International Year for the Elimination of Child Labour2021 - International Year of Peace and Trust2021 - International Year of Creative Economy for Sustainable DevelopmentSpanish is written using the Latin script. Spanish first appeared in writing in the form of notes in Latinreligious texts dating from the 11th century. During the 12th century, law codes were being translatedinto Spanish and in the 13th century Spanish prose and poetry began to flourish.2021 - International Year of Fruits and VegetablesInternational decades currently observed by the United Nations include:There are around 8,000 students from Spanish speaking public in NSW public schools.2021 – 2030 United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration2021 – 2030 International Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development2019 – 2028 Nelson Mandela Decade of Peace2018 – 2028 International Decade for Action “Water for Sustainable Development”2018 – 2027 Third United Nations Decade for the Eradication of Poverty2016 – 2025 United Nations Decade of Action on NutritionThe Lunar Calendar and the Year of the Ox and the WombatThe Lunar New Year 4719 will be celebrated on 12 February 2021. It celebrates Xin Nian, theChinese New Year, Solnal, the Korean New Year, Tết, the Vietnamese New Year and also Losar,the New Year celebrations for Tibet. Traditionally Shōgatsu, the Japanese New Year was also celebrated on this date butsince 1873, the official Japanese New Year has been celebrated according to the Gregorian calendar, on January 1 of eachyear. In most of these nations the Gregorian calendar is used for civil purposes but the lunar calendar is used to determinefestivals and auspicious dates such as weddings and moving house.This lunar new year is based on the traditional Chinese Agricultural Calendar which is lunisolar, primarily lunarbut partially solar, guided by the movement of the moon as well as the sun. It is commonly called the lunarcalendar.The Chinese lunar calendar is associated with the Chinese zodiac, which has 12 animal signs: rat, ox, tiger, rabbit,dragon, snake, horse, goat, monkey, rooster, dog, and pig. Each animal represents a year in a 12 year cycle,beginning on Lunar New Year’s Day. There are many legends concerning the choice and order of the animalsand their characteristics which are said to be imparted to people born in their year.The Australian Chinese Zodiac was developed by the Chinese Precinct Chamber of Commerce in Australia topromote understanding between Chinese and Australian cultures. Animals from the traditional zodiac have beenmatched to native animals according to their perceived similar characteristics. This year the Ox is matched to theWombat. For the complete Australian Chinese Zodiac visit http://www.australianchinesezodiac.com.au/Ox 牛The Ox is noted for its patience and taciturnity. It is eccentric, bigoted and can be angered easily.Wombat 袋熊The wombat is a very patient mammal with its own eccentric character and can be very defensive when a threat e are about 750 students from Burmese speaking backgrounds in NSW public schools.AprilFrench is a Romance language spoken by about 354 million people worldwide. It is the third mostspoken language in Europe, after German and English, and is also spoken in parts of Africa, NorthAmerica, South America, Asia and Oceania. It is the language of France and an official language ofanother 27 nations.French was widely used as a diplomatic language from the 17th century until the middle of the 20thcentury when it was replaced by English. It is still used in many international organisations.French is written using the Latin script and first appeared in writing in 842 CE. Before then, Latin wasthe language used for literature throughout Europe.During the 10th and 11th centuries, French appeared in a number of documents and religiouswritings, and as literature from the late 12th century.There are about 3,400 students from French speaking backgrounds in NSW public schools.MayUyghur ەچرۇغيۇئ is a Turkic language with about 25 million speakers mainly in the XinjiangUyghur Autonomous Region in the north west of China. In Xinjiang, Uyghur is an officiallanguage widely used in education and in the media, and as a lingua franca among other peoples.There are also significant communities of Uyghur speakers in Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.Over the course of its history, Uyghur has been written with several scripts including versions of theArabic, Latin and Cyrillic alphabets adapted to represent the sounds of Uyghur. In 1987, the Arabicscript replaced the Latin alphabet as the official script for writing Uyghur in China. In this version ofArabic, all vowels are spelled out and it is written in horizontal lines from right to left.JuneAssyrian / Neo-Assyrian () is spoken by an estimated 3 million people in parts of Iran,Iraq, Turkey and Syria, and among the Assyrian diaspora mainly in the USA and Europe. Assyrian isalso known as Assyrian Neo-Aramaic. Assyrian is usually written in the madnhāyā version of the Syriacalphabet and is written from left to right in horizontal lines. The Syriac Latin alphabet, developed inthe 1930s, has also become widespread mainly in the Assyrian diaspora for practical reasons and itsconvenience, especially in social media.Class 2P – Glendore Public School – Awabakal CountryJulyWhen the First Fleet arrived in Australia in 1788 several distinct groups of Aboriginal people occupiedthe Sydney Basin. The largest of these groups were the people of the Dharug language group. Darugcountry extended from the Sydney CBD to the Blue Mountains. Dharug is the language. Darug arethe people and the land.The Darug people are thought to have lived in groups or communities of around50 members. Each group retained its own hunting district, and each lived a seminomadic lifestyle, regularly changing location within their country. Typical dwellingswere two-sided bark tents known as gunyahs, while sandstone rock shelters wereused in harsh weather. Men of the communities were responsible for huntingpossums, fish, birds and kangaroo, often collaborating with other groups to hunt and eatthe larger animals. Fire was used to reduce undergrowth and to catch game.This painting was completed by class 2P under the guidance and teaching of Mrs KerryPatterson, a teacher from the Darkinyung people.Inside Cover – Lily Rose Year 4 – Excelsior Public School – Darug CountryCurious wombatThe curious wombat is wandering in his beautiful land in search of what this lunar year willbring to his life. He looks into the water and sees the bright, glistening sun. This knoorre-knoorre (wombat) is happy to be in his nice andwarm home.Inside Cover – Students Y4 – Y10 – Carenne School – Wiradjuri CountryJack Murphy, Danny Pike, Sophie Slatter, Faith Butler, Joshua Bearne-RyanYear of the WombatFirstly, we made a monoprint background and then created our wombats using collage. We found out that the local Aboriginal (Wiradjuri)name for wombat is Wombad and that all species of wombats are protected in every Australian state.AcknowledgementsNSW Department of Education advisors from the Multicultural Education Team, EducationalStandards Directorate coordinate the annual development of the calendar and related informationin consultation with the Aboriginal Outcomes and Partnerships Directorate.The department acknowledges the work of students, teachers and schools in contributing a highstandard of artwork for selection in this year’s calendar.Many government departments, religious, community and ethno specific organisations, localauthorities and community members have provided advice and information.A poster is attached to the calendar. It displays the word ‘Welcome’ in many of our communitylanguages. It is designed for display in the classroom and around the school to help promote aninclusive anti-racism ethos in the school community.SeptemberSwahili (Kiswahili) is a Bantu language spoken in Tanzania, Burundi, Congo (Kinshasa), Kenya,Mayotte, Mozambique, Oman, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, Uganda, UAE and the USA. Around5 million people speak Swahili as a native language and a further 135 million speak it as a secondlanguage. Swahili is an official language of Tanzania, Uganda and Kenya and is used as a lingua francathroughout East Africa.The earliest known Swahili documents were official letters to the Portuguese people of Mozambiquein 1711 and an epic poem in 1728 written in the Arabic script. With the arrival of the European colonialpowers in East Africa Swahili was used as the main language of administration and the Latin alphabetwas increasingly used to write it.Through the centuries there have been several systems used for writing Mongolian based on Uyghur,Tibetan and Latin alphabets but in 1941 the Cyrillic alphabet was officially adopted. TraditionalMongolian script is now taught to some extent in schools, though it is mainly used for decorativepurposes by artists, designers, calligraphers and poets and in the Inner Mongolian AutonomousRegion of China. Traditional Mongolian script is written from left to right in vertical columns runningfrom top to bottom.There are over 4,500 students from Assyrian speaking backgrounds in NSW public schools.The Stronger together story is told through Aboriginal art. It represents the difficult timesover the past year that New South Wales has been through – the drought, bushfires, floodsand COVID 19. After all that we have been through we have pulled together as a state andeducation provider and we have proven we are stronger together. The painting has thefootprints of the wombat and the wombat represents determination and strength.There are approximately 5,300 students from Punjabi speaking backgrounds in NSW public schools.Burmese dialects in other parts of Burma differ from the standard, but they are all more or lessmutually intelligible.Cover artworkStronger togetherIn West Punjab, from the 11th century, Punjabi ( ) یباجنپ was written with a version of the Urdualphabet known as Shahmukhi which means ‘from the King’s mouth’. The Shahmukhi alphabetcurrently used was developed in Pakistan in 2016. It is written from right to left in horizontal lines.In East Punjab, Punjabi ( ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ) is written with the Gurmukhi alphabet which was standardisedduring the 16th century by Guru Angad Dev Ji. Gurmukhi means ‘from the mouth of the Guru’. It iswritten from left to right in horizontal lines and is the alphabet used in this calendar.There are over 700 students from Swahili speaking backgrounds in NSW public schools.There are about 60 students from Uyghur speaking backgrounds in NSW public gustPunjabi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about 130 million people mainly in West Punjab inPakistan and in East Punjab in India. There are also significant numbers of Punjabi speakers in the UK,Canada, the UAE, the USA, Saudi Arabia and Australia. Punjabi is one of India’s 22 official languagesand it is the first official language in East Punjab. In Pakistan Punjabi is the second most widelyspoken language but has no official status.MarchBurmese () or Myanmar, is a member of the Lolo-Burmese branch of the Sino-Tibetanlanguage family. It is spoken mainly in Myanmar (Burma), where it is the official language. There areabout 33 million people who speak Burmese as a first language. There are also thought to be another10 million who speak it as a second la

dragon, snake, horse, goat, monkey, rooster, dog, and pig. Each animal represents a year in a 12 year cycle, . and mid-January to early February is Vaimu’a. February. Spanish (español/ castellano) is a Romance language with approximately 470 million speakers, 410 . million of whom speak it as a first language while the remainder speak it as a second language. A significant number of .