Transcription

Grammar and CompositionGrammar PracticeWorkbookTeacher’s Annotated EditionGrade 9

Glencoe/McGraw-HillCopyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission isgranted to reproduce material contained herein on the condition that such material bereproduced only for classroom use; and be provided to students, teachers, and familieswithout charge; and be used solely in conjunction with Writer’s Choice. Any otherreproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without written permission of the publisher.Printed in the United States of America.Send all inquiries to:Glencoe/McGraw-Hill8787 Orion PlaceColumbus, Ohio 43240ISBN 0-07-823362-31 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 079 04 03 02 01 00ii

ContentsUnit 10Parts of Speech10.110.210.310.310.410.510.610.7Unit 11Parts of the Sentence11.311.511.511.5Unit 12Simple and Compound Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18Adjective Clauses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19Adverb Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20Noun Clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21Four Kinds of Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22Sentence Fragments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23Run-on Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24Verb Tenses and Voice15.215.415.7Unit 16Prepositional Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13Appositives and Appositive Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Participles and Participial Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15Gerunds and Gerund Phrases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17Clauses and Sentence Structure13.313.513.613.713.813.913.10Unit 15Compound Subjects and Compound Predicates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Indirect Objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Object Complements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Subject Complements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Phrases12.112.212.312.312.3Unit 13Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2Action Verbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Linking Verbs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5Adverbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7Conjunctions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8Regular and Irregular Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25Perfect Tenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26Voice of Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Subject-Verb Agreement16.216.4–5Agreement with Linking Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28Agreement with Special and Compound Subjects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29iii

ContentsUnit 17Using Pronouns Correctly17.117.217.317.517.6Unit 18Using Modifiers Correctly18.218.418.7Unit 20Capitalization of Sentences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38Capitalization of Proper Nouns and Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39Punctuation, Abbreviations, and 821.921.1021.1121.12–13ivIrregular Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35Incomplete Comparisons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Capitalization20.120.2–3Unit 21Case of Personal Pronouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30Pronouns with and as Appositives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31Pronouns After Than and As . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33Clear Pronoun Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34End Punctuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40The Colon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41The Semicolon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42Commas and Compound Sentences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43Commas and Coordinate Adjectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44Commas with Parenthetical Expressions and Conjunctive Adverbs . . . . . . 45Commas with Direct Address and Tag Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46Misuse of Commas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47The Dash and Parentheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48Quotation Marks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49Italics (Underlining) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50The Apostrophe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51The Hyphen and Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Grammar PracticeName . Class . Date .10.1NounsKey InformationNouns name people, places, things, or te nouns identify objects that are tangibleor can be identified through the senses.hooffogWilliam LomanZaireIslamMachu PicchuCollective nouns name groups. The singularform is sometimes considered singular andsometimes considered plural.yawnmelodiesAbstract nouns name ideas, qualities, orcharacteristics.fearloveProper nouns name particular people, places,things, or ideas. Proper nouns are alwayscapitalized.committee(a) pride (of lions)choirspiritkindness A. Categorizing NounsPlace each of the nouns listed below in the appropriate column. Many nouns may be listed inmore than one column.Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.crewtheoryLeontyne ectivecrewLeontyne PricetheoryhesitationLeontyne aracas B. Identifying NounsUnderline all nouns in the following sentences. Write whether each noun is concrete (C),abstract (A), proper (P), or collective (CL).AC, CLC1. The audience showed its approval with a standing ovation.CC, PC, P2. Mecca is a holy city for all Muslims.AC, CL3. The ideals of the team were very high.CCC, PA4. The urban designs of architect I. M. Pei have won him international acclaim.Writer’s Choice: Grammar Practice Workbook, Grade 9, Unit 101

Grammar PracticeName . Class . Date .10.2PronounsKey InformationPronouns can take the place of nouns, groupsof words acting as nouns, or other pronouns.Interrogative pronouns are used to formquestions.Relative pronouns introduce subordinateclauses.Rene, who is from Paris, drives a Porsche.Who is the best athlete on the team?The house that we spoke about hasbeen sold.Whatever do you mean?Give the trophy to whomever you choose. A. Identifying PronounsUnderline all interrogative and relative pronouns in the following sentences. Write whethereach is interrogative (I) or relative (R).IR1. Who was the woman that I saw you with at the movies?R2. The singer for whom the rock opera was written married the director.R3. You should do whatever you think is best.IR4. What is the name of the song that he wrote? B. Using Relative PronounsCombine the following sentences, changing one sentence of each pair to a subordinate clause.Introduce each subordinate clause with a relative pronoun.Some people are glad when winter is over. They do not like cold weather.People who do not like cold weather are glad when winter is over.1. Mary McLeod Bethune is a famous black educator. She lived from 1875 to 1955.Mary . . . educator who lived from 1875 to 1955.2. In the early part of the twentieth century, Bethune founded a school for girls. The schooleventually merged with a boys’ school and became Bethune-Cookman College.In the early . . . for girls, which eventually merged. . . .3. Bethune worked closely with Franklin D. Roosevelt. She served as the Special Advisor onMinority Affairs.Bethune, who served as the Special Advisor on Minority Affairs, worked. . . .4. Bethune was an observer for the State Department at the UN Conference in 1945.Bethune had spent many years in public service.Bethune, who had spent . . . service, was an observer. . . .2Writer’s Choice: Grammar Practice Workbook, Grade 9, Unit 10Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.Example:

Grammar PracticeName . Class . Date .10.3Action VerbsKey InformationAction verbs describe physical or mental action.jogsmilepointthinkworryTransitive verbs are action verbs followed bywords that answer what? or whom?Intransitive verbs are also action verbs, butthey are not followed by words that answerwhat? or whom?Condors live in the Andes. [The intransitiveverb live is followed by the words in theAndes, which tell where, not what orwhom.]Jack made his own wedding cake. [Thewords wedding cake follow the transitiveverb made and answer the questionmade what?] A. Identifying Transitive and Intransitive VerbsThe following excerpt is from The Waves, a novel by British writer Virginia Woolf. Writewhether each of the boldface action verbs in the excerpt is transitive (T) or intransitive (I). Ifthe verb is transitive, underline the word or words following it that answer the question what?or whom?Literature ModelTIhe light struck upon the trees in the garden, making one leaf transparent and then another. OneITbird chirped high up; there was a pause; another chirped lower down. The sun sharpened theITwalls of the house, and rested like the tip of a fan upon a white blind and made a blue fingerprint ofICopyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.shadow under the leaf by the bedroom window. The blind stirred slightly, but all within was dimTand unsubstantial. The birds sang their blank melody outside. . . .TTTThe waves broke and spread their waters swiftly over the shore. One after another they massedITthemselves and fell; the spray tossed itself back with the energy of their fall.Virginia Woolf, The Waves B. Using Transitive and Intransitive VerbsWrite five sentences about yourself. Identify each action verb you use as transitive (T)or intransitive (I). Sentences will vary.1.2.3.4.5.Writer’s Choice: Grammar Practice Workbook, Grade 9, Unit 103

Grammar PracticeName . Class . Date .10.3Linking VerbsKey InformationLinking verbs connect the subject of a sentencewith words or groups of words that identify ordescribe it.Oro is the Spanish word for gold.Below are some other common linking verbs.All forms of the verb be can function as ooksoundTomorrow will be bright and sunny. A. Identifying Linking VerbsUnderline all linking verbs in the sentences below.1. She said that she feels confident about the success of the plan.2. Thai food often tastes exotic to those who have never tried it.3. That is the year Maria was born.4. Herbs grow well if the soil is sandy and the drainage is adequate.5. The President looked tired and frustrated.6. The world’s tallest trees are California redwoods.7. All the actors were proud of their performances.8. The food smelled delicious from two blocks away.9. I am tired because I did not sleep well last night. B. Using Linking VerbsWrite five sentences about your family and friends, using at least one linking verb in eachsentence. Underline each linking verb. Sentences will vary.1.2.3.4.5.4Writer’s Choice: Grammar Practice Workbook, Grade 9, Unit 10Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.10. A stubborn person, he re