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2x350 MW SUPERCRITICAL COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTENVIRONMENTAL & SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT:SCOPING REPORTDECEMBER 2015

2x350 MW Supercritical Coal-Fired Power PlantESIA – Scoping Report2x350 MW SUPERCRITICAL COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTENVIRONMENTAL & SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT:SCOPING REPORTPREPARED BYIN ASSOCIATIONPremier Resource ConsultingESL ConsultingEnvaserve Research ConsultP. O. Box CT 5510P. O. Box LG 239P. O. Box GP 3797Cantonments – AccraLegon, AccraAccraEmail: [email protected] i

2x350 MW Supercritical Coal-Fired Power PlantESIA – Scoping ReportPROFILE OF ESIA TEAMThe team of specialists conducting the environmental and social impact assessment for the2x350MW Supercritical Coal-Fired Power Plant is composed of a consortium comprisingPremier Resource Consulting, ESL Consulting and Envaserve Research Consult. The teammembership have over fifteen years experience and sector specialist knowledge.The member specialists and expected roles on the team are presented below:TEAMNAMESTASKESIA Specialist and Safetyand Risk DesignMr. Felix Quansar(ESIA LEAD CONSULTANT)SubtidalEcologyLead:Mr. Ayaa Kojo Armah(ESIAASSISTANT LEADCONSULTANT)Assistant:Amanor KisseihLeadMr. Emmanuel LampteyAssistantSelorm Dzako AbabioCoordination of the entire studyBaseline assessmentTechnology and Process AnalysisEnvironmental Impact AnalysisSafety and Risk DesignPublic ConsultationDrafting Reports and Quality AssuranceAssist Coordination of Entire Study and QualityControlCoordinator for Ecological Survey & HabitatAssessment StudyLoss and disturbance to subtidal benthosandIntertidalModeling SpecialistAssistant Ecology ReviewCoordinatorAnthony BentilMarineTurtlesLead:Mr. Andy AgyekumheneMammalsandAssistant:Enoch ArmahVegetation/ForestEcologistLead:Dr. James K .AdomakoAssistant:John AmponsahAir quality monitoringEmission MonitoringNoise MonitoringConducting Air Emission Dispersion, Noise andSeawater modelingGreen House Gas Emission and Climate ChangeassessmentWill assist Project manager in all activities whichinclude project planning, baseline surveys,environmental and social impacts identification,analysis and mitigation. Will be involved instakeholder consultations and report writing.Potential impacts on marine mammals, includingendangered and vulnerable species that are thoughtto be present in the local area and known to bepresent in the wider area;Potential impacts on sea turtle species that may nestin the area of works and migrate across the area;rapid sea turtle field verification surveyList the prominent plant species (trees, shrubs,grasses and other herbaceous species of specialinterest) present for vegetation unit and ecosystemdelimitation.Identify plant species of conservation importance;which could possibly occur at the siteMake recommendation on suitability of site for theproject regarding the extent of impacts on theecologyPage ii

2x350 MW Supercritical Coal-Fired Power PlantMarine, Fresh Surface andGround Water QualityRelated Impacts/ MarineSedimensLead:Dr. Ansa-AsareFisheriesLead:Richmond QuarteyAssistant:Emmanuel s SekuLead:Adu-Nyarko AndorfulAssistant:Bright YeboahLead:Dr. D. F. K AlloteyAssistant:Moses OcquayeLead:Yaw Osei-Wusu PeprahAssistantGeorge NimakoLead:Maxwell Mensah keholderConsultationTerrestrialSoilandGeology InvestigationValuationLandscape SeascapeESIA – Scoping ReportpH and TemperatureSalinity and ConductivityBiological and Chemical Oxygen DemandTurbidityDissolved and Suspended SolidsHydrocarbonsOil and GreaseHeavy MetalsNutrientsMicrobiologyGrain size analysisAssistant:Victor MantePotential impacts on fish nursery and spawninggroundsPlankton and benthos assessmentIdentify animal/faunal species of conservationimportance; which could possibly occur at the siteMake recommendation on suitability of site for theproject regarding the extent of impacts on theecologyPossess extensive experience in the six coastaldistricts with local communities and otherstakeholders. Will lead all stakeholder consultationsSocio-economist/rap expertSite soil contamination and qualification assessmentincluding physicochemical analysis, pH, Sulphate,Chloride, Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) andTotal Petroleum and Hydrocarbon (TPH)Land acquisition processesValuationDrafting Property impact ReportLandscape, Seascape and Visual Impact AssessmentHistorical resource and cultural heritage assessmentPage iii

2x350 MW Supercritical Coal-Fired Power PlantLIST OF ABBREVIATIONSVRAVolta River AuthoritySECShenzhen Energy Group Co., Ltd.CHTCoal Handling TerminalMOFMaterial Offloading FacilityFGDFlue Gas DesulfurizationESPElectro-static PrecipitatorROReverse OsmosisUFUltra FiltrationEDIElectro DeionizationDWTDead Weight TonsMMeterMMMillimeterHPHorse PowerNOXNitrogen OxidesSOxSulphur OxidesCOxCarbon OxidesPMParticulate MatterNEQGNational Environmental Quality GuidelineTpdTons per DayLULUCFLand Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry sector.Page ivESIA – Scoping Report

2x350 MW Supercritical Coal-Fired Power PlantESIA – Scoping ReportEXECUTIVE SUMMARYShenzhen Energy Group Co., Ltd. (SEC) in collaboration with Volta River Authority (VRA)intends developing a 2 350MW supercritical coal-fired power generating facility(including the affiliated coal handling terminal) to be situated along the coastline of Ghana.The project is intended to contribute considerably to addressing the domestic powergeneration shortfall in the near future to improve Ghana’s future power balance.Consequently, the project strategically provides reliable basis for Ghana’s base loadoperation whiles optimizing power generation portfolio and generation reliability in Ghanaat favourable price advantage to support the country’s economic and social development.In accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency Act 1994, Act 490 (Parts 1&II)and Environmental Assessment Regulations 1999, LI 1652, an Environmental and SocialImpact Assessment is required prior to the development of the proposed project. As a partof the process a scoping report is demanded to set out and validate the extent of theEnvironmental Impact study and ascertain the significance of the potential key impactareas of the development.This Scoping Report outlines the conditions of the environment earmarked toaccommodate the proposed 2X350MW Supercritical Coal-Fired Power Plant project. Thereport describes the preliminary identification of all potential significant adverseenvironmental and social impacts on the terrestrial and marine ecology resulting from thepre-construction, construction, operation and decommissioning activities of the proposedproject. The report further identifies the environmental resources and social aspects,which stand the risk of adverse impact from the development and implementation of theproposed project. Based on the preliminary consultations, review of secondary andprimary data collected and the identified key issues of potential impact the Terms ofReference for the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment of the project have beendeveloped and included.The environmental and social impact assessment would comply with NationalEnvironmental laws and Quality Guideline, other relevant Ghanaian legislations which areapplicable to the project and relevant international agreements and conventions. The ESIAwill conform to a number of international guidelines and standards including the IFCPerformance Standards particularly the Environmental, Health and Safety Guidelines forThermal Power Plant.The project is conceived to have a future expansion to an integrated 2000MW SupercriticalCoal-Fired Power Plant with affiliated coal handling terminal, infrastructure, residentialand outdoor area. The development of the project is structured as phase 1 involving thedevelopment of 2X350MW Supercritical Coal-Fired Power Plant and phase 2 involving thedevelopment of 4X350MW or 2X600MW Supercritical Coal-Fired Power Plant.Page v

2x350 MW Supercritical Coal-Fired Power PlantESIA – Scoping ReportThe generating units would comprise two power blocks each consisting of: A boiler based on supercritical pulverized coal technology A steam turbine and generator unit with 350 MW rated output A once through circulation cooling water system Electro-static Precipitator for removal of dust in flue gas Seawater Flue Gas Desulfurization for removal of SOx in the flue gas Low NOx combustionThe coal-fired power generating process would involve burning pulverized coal in a boiler(steam generator) to heat water to produce steam, which flows into the turbine, whichspins the generator to produce electricity. The power produced would be evacuatedthrough a 2x15 km 330kV transmission to the national transmission from Aboadze toTema. The ash generated from combustion in the form of fly ash and slag would betransported to the ash storage yard using trucks. The ash yard is initially considered for 5years ash accumulation.The ancillary facilities to the power station include: 330kV transmission lines Once through circulation cooling water system Wastewater treatment system Firefighting system Coal unloading, storage, conveying and pulverization system Ash storage yard Residential quarters Access roadThe Coal Handling Terminal (CHT) is proposed for 70,000DWT coal carriers mainly fromSouth Africa where the coal will be sourced from. The CHT will also have a MaterialOffloading Berth designed for 10,000DWT vessels with length of 174m. The coal unloadingfacilities are two grap type ship unloader each of capacity 1500 tons/hour, which transferthe coal onto belt conveyors for transportation to the transfer tower on land.The project, which is planned to commence in August 2016 and commission commercialoperation in 2019/2020, is estimated to cost 1.5 billion US Dollars.A pre-feasibility study has been completed to determine the selection of suitable powerplant technology alternatives, power unit and plant size. The study furthermore reviewedfuel alternatives and plant location alternatives. Five possible sites were reviewed and twopotential sites Akwidaa (Site 1) and Ekumfi (site 4) were eventually evaluated. EkumfiAboano became the preferred location to accommodate the coal-fired power generatingplant, especially for reasons of minimal environmental impact and implications.Page vi

2x350 MW Supercritical Coal-Fired Power PlantESIA – Scoping ReportThe consultation engaged various interest groupings with relation to the projectdevelopment, with the overall purpose of soliciting viewpoints in respect of potentialimpacts of the project on society. The structure of consultation represents three levelsidentified as National, District and Local level consultations. A total of 20 meetings wereheld with 15 stakeholder groups. Stakeholders consulted included national, regional anddistrict representatives.The key responses from the consultations reflect usual concerns of a novel industry whosepotential adverse impacts are quite new in Ghana. Even though most stakeholderswelcomed the development of the coal-fired power project and the associated advantages,they showed concerns in respect of management of possible negative impacts. It becameclear that there is limited knowledge and awareness of the operational features of coalfired power plant and the advancement in technological efficiency and pollution controls.The proposed operation is new in Ghana and West Africa and significant sensitizationwould be crucial to garnering various stakeholder supports. In general more of thestakeholders emphasized the deployment of cleaner technology and best availabletechnology to reduce the potential negative impacts especially relating to air emissions.Two principal receptors are considered to have the potential of being influenced by theproposed operation and are identified as the marine and terrestrial environments. Reviewand identification of potential impacts and their significance have been based on analyticalreview of operational processes and resources demands and requirements. Particularattention is also given to alternative considerations and best available technologies.The review has indicated the operation may potentially impact positively and adversely onthe two identified key environmental receptors. Consideration of impact included potentialecological changes, environmental health impacts, occupational health and safety impacts,noise and air quality impacts as well as socio-economic impacts, greenhouse gas emissionand global climate change.The key potential environmental impacts and implications identification considered theactivities during preconstruction, construction, operation and decommissioning activities.The project is expected to comply with the relevant National, Regional and Internationallegislations. Emissions and discharges are expected to meet the Ghana NationalEnvironmental Quality Guidelines Standards and related requirements. Moreover, the fluegas emission of the power plant will also meet the Thermal Power Guideline for PollutionPrevention and Abatement of the World Bank Group and Environmental Health and SafetyGuideline for Thermal Power Plants (2008) of International Finance Corporation of theWorld Bank Group.The preconstruction activities involved site investigations including drilling and samplingPage vii

2x350 MW Supercritical Coal-Fired Power PlantESIA – Scoping Reportof ground materials for geological and seismic purposes. Generally, the identified potentialimpacts, after mitigation measures applied where appropriate, were considered relativelyinsignificant on both terrestrial and marine ecology.The construction activities are expected to involve site preparations including, blasting,clearing, cutting and filling earth works as well as construction of structures and civilworks to house the power plant and machinery. In addition, the activities would coverconstruction of ancillary infrastructure including roads and drainage systems, residentialfacilities and coal handing terminal. The phase would also involve installation of powerplant, machinery and equipment, transportation of materials and machinery andequipment as well as operation of construction machineryThe potential impacts on the terrestrial ecology would include possible changes in airquality, noise level, wastewater generation and discharges, solid waste generation, impacton ecosystem (flora and fauna), traffic and occupational health and safety.The potential impacts of the construction activities on the marine ecology would includepossible seawater pollution, air quality changes, noise level and solid waste generation.The operational phase activities would include the operation of the coal handling terminaland affiliated Material Offloading Facility; the operation of the 2X350MW supercritical coalfired power plant and the ancillary facilities and the running of the residential facilities.The possible impacts on terrestrial ecology are identified to affect air quality, ambientnoise, solid waste, generation of hazardous, vibration, waste disposal and health and safetyissues, as well as social and economic impact.The potential impacts on the marine ecology include seawater temperature changes,seawater pollution and noise pollution.Impact identification at the decommissioning operation would be discussed in the ESIA.Appropriate mitigation initiatives have been discussed and they are aimed at minimizingthe possible impact implications on both the terrestrial and marine ecology.The ESIA will describe the plans to be put in place to mitigate and manage impacts. TheESIA process will include engagement with the government and community and civilsociety stakeholders to obtain their views. The ESIA report, along with stakeholdercomments will be submitted to the Ghana EPA for permitting assessment.A consortium of Ghanaian environmental consultants namely Premier ResourcesConsulting, ESL Consulting and Envaserve Research Consulting is contracted to conduct thePage viii

2x350 MW Supercritical Coal-Fired Power PlantESIA – Scoping ReportESIA. The ESIA will be conducted in accordance with the requirements of the GhanaEnvironmental Assessment Regulations of 1999 (LI 1652). The ESIA will also be conductedin consideration of the environmental and social performance standards of theInternational Finance Corporation (IFC) as well as the World Bank.Page ix

2x350 MW Supercritical Coal-Fired Power PlantESIA – Scoping ReportCONTENTSPROFILE OF AUTHORS ----------------------------------- iiLIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ------------------------------- ivEXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1.4.1.5.INTRODUCTION ------------------------------------------11.1.1 Shenzhen Energy Group Co,. Ltd. ---------11.1.2 Volta River Authority ------------------------1Purpose of the ----------------------------------------2Project Objectives -------------------------------------3The Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) Process -----------------------------3Scoping 2.1.LEGAL, REGULATORY AND ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS -------------------5Government and Administrative Framework -----52.1.1 The Ghanaian Constitution ------------------52.1.2 Ministries and Administrative Bodies -----52.2. Environmental Legislation ---------------------------62.2.1 The Environmental Protection Act ---------62.2.2 Environmental Assessment Regulations --62.2.3 Environmental Guidelines -------------------62.3. Land and Water Resources Legislations -----------72.4. Biodiversity and Wildlife Legislations -------------82.5. Pollution Control --------------------------------------82.6. Power Sector -------------------------------------------92.7. Other Relevant Ghanaian Regulations -------------92.8. Relevant International Agreements and Conventions -------------------------------------------- 102.9. International Best Practice Standards and ---- 112.10. Corporate Environmental Policy Statements ---- 122.10.1 VRA Environmental Policy Statement -- 122.10.2 SEC Environmental Policy Statement --- 133.3.1.3.2.3.3.4.4.1.PROJECT DESCRIPTION ------------------------ 15Project Background --------------------------------- 15Component of the Project -------------------------- 153.2.1 The General Arrangement and Layout -- 153.2.2 The Power Generating Plant -------------- 163.2.3 The Coal Handling Terminal ------------- 253.2.4 Infrastructure -------------------------------- 27Residential and Outdoor Area --------------------- 273.3.1 Civil and Structure Design criteria ------- 28PROJECT ALTERNATIVES --------------------- 30Alternative Technologies --------------------------- 304.1.1 Coal-fired Power Plant Technology ----- 304.1.2 Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) --------- 32Page x

2x350 MW Supercritical Coal-Fired Power .7.2.7.3.8.8.1.ESIA – Scoping Report4.1.3 Seawater Cooling --------------------------- 334.1.4 Coal Storage --------------------------------- 33Alternative Fuels ------------------------------------ 334.2.1 Coal Specification -------------------------- 334.2.2 Diesel Oil Specification ------------------- 34Alternative Site Considerations ------------------- 354.2.3 Akwidaa (Site 1) ---------------------------- 364.2.4 Ekumfi Aboano (Site 4) ------------------- 374.2.5 Preferred Site -------------------------------- 39DESCRIPTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC BASELINE ------ 41Physical ------------------------------------------ 415.1.1 Climate and Meteorology ----------------- 415.1.2 Topography and Geology ----------------- 425.1.3 Seismicity ------------------------------------ 435.1.4 Hydrology and Oceanography ------------ 445.1.5 Air Quality and Ambient Noise ---------- 44Biological Environment ---------------------------- 455.2.1 Flora ------------------------------------------ 455.2.2 Fauna ----------------------------------------- 45Socio- Economics ----------------------------------- 455.3.1 Administrative Structure ------------------ 455.3.2 Demographics ------------------------------- 465.3.3 Economic Activities ------------------------ 465.3.4 Social Services and Infrastructure -------- 46Green House Gas ------------------------------- 50CONSULTATION ---------------------------------- 49Objectives and Approach --------------------------- 49Stakeholder Engagement Activities (SEA) ------ 496.2.1 Stakeholder Identification (Mapping) --- 496.2.2 Notification of Key Stakeholders -------- 506.2.3 Consultation Meetings --------------------- 51Scoping Notice --------------------------------------- 54IDENTIFICATION, ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION OF IMPACTS -------------------- 55Pre-construction ----------------------------------- 577.1.1 Impact of Terrestrial -------------------- 577.1.2 Impact on Marine Ecology ---------------- 58Construction Phase ---------------------------------- 587.2.1 Impact on Terrestrial Ecology ------------ 587.2.2 Impact on Marine Ecology ---------------- 60Operational Phase Impacts ------------------------- 607.3.1 Impact on Terrestrial Ecology ------------ 617.3.2 Impact on Marine Ecology ---------------- 627.3.3 Occupational Health and Safety ---------- 637.3.4 Socio-Economic Impact ------------------- 64IMPACT MITIGATION --------------------------- 65Pre-construction ----------------------------------- 65Page xi

2x350 MW Supercritical Coal-Fired Power Plant8.2.8.3.9.9.1.9.2.9.3.9.4.ESIA – Scoping ReportConstruction Phase ---------------------------------- 658.2.1 Terrestrial Ecology ------------------------- 658.2.2 Marine Ecology ----------------------------- 65Operational Phase ----------------------------------- 668.3.1 Terrestrial Ecology ------------------------- 668.3.2 Marine Ecology ----------------------------- 68MONITORING -------------------------------------- 70Ambient Air Quality ---------------------------- 70Emission ------------------------------------------ 70Effluent Seawater Quality and Temperature Monitoring ---------------------------------------- 70Ambient Noise Monitoring ------------------------ 7010.10.1.10.2.10.3.TERMS OF REFERENCE FOR ESIA ---------- 71Chapter Overview ----------------------------------- 71Next Step to Complete the ESIA ------------------ 71Proposed Baseline Studies ------------------------- 7110.3.1 Environmental and Socio-economic Baseline Studies ---------------------------------- 7110.4. Stakeholder Engagement --------------------------- 7210.5. Proposed Structure of the ESIA Report ---------- 73REFERENCES ----------------------------------------------- 78ANNEXES -- 80ANNEXESAnnex 1:Annex 2:Annex 3:Annex 4:Annex 5:Annex 6:Annex 7:Overview of Scope of Biophysical Baseline StudiesOverview of Scope of Social Baseline StudiesSites Technical Evaluation and ComparisonComprehensive List of Stakeholders Consulted with to dateBackground Information Document (BID) Used for Scoping ConsultationConsultation RecordsScoping NoticePage xii

2x350 MW Supercritical Coal-Fired Power PlantESIA – Scoping ReportTABLESTable 2-1: Relevant International Agreements and Conventions . 10Table 3-1: Ash Quantities. 20Table 3-2: Required Plant Area . 29Table 4-1: Comparative Coal Consumptions and Emissions of Air blown Pulverized CoalCombustion Technologies without CCS (MIT Coal Study 2007) . 31Table 4-2: Comparison of Wet Limestone Gypsum FGD and Seawater FGD . 32Table 4-3: Indicative Specification of Coal . 34Table 4-4: The Light Diesel Oil Specification . 34Table 4-5: Summary Site Evaluation . 39Table 5-1: Green House Gas Emission Baseline. 48Table 7-1: Flue Gas Emission Standard . 57Table 7-2: Manufacturer’s Specifications of Equipment Sound Level . 61FIGURESFigure 3-1: Typical Coal-Fired Power Plant . 18Figure 4-1: Comparison of Coal Plants - Ultra-supercritical plants have higher efficiencies thansupercritical and subcritical ones .

Coal-Fired Power Plant with affiliated coal handling terminal, infrastructure, residential and outdoor area. The development of the project is structured as phase 1 involving the development of 2X350MW Supercritical Coal-Fired Power Plant and phase 2 involving the development of 4X350MW or 2X600