What Is Hardware? A computer is made up of hardware. Hardware is the physical components of a computer systeme.g., a monitor, keyboard, mouse and the computer itself.Introduction To Computers:Hardware and SoftwareIn this section of notes you willlearn about the basic parts of acomputer and how they work.James TamBasic Units Of MeasurementJames TamLarge Units Of Measurement (Memory, Storage)Bit Note: powers of two are used because computer memory andstorage are based on the basic unit (bit). Kilobyte (kB) – a thousand bytes (1,024 210) Megabyte (MB) - a million (1,048,576 220) Gigabyte (GB) – a billion (1,073,741,824 230) Binary digit Smallest unit of measurement Two possible values A complete set of encyclopedias requires about 600 MB of storage Terabyte (TB) – a trillion (1,099,511,627,776 240)Byte 20 million four-drawer filing cabinets full of text 8 bitsWord The number of adjacent bits that can bestored and manipulated as a unit 32, 64 for home computers, 128 for themost powerfulJames TamSmall Units Of Measurement (Speed)James TamHigh Level View Of A Computer10-3) Millisecond (ms) – a thousandth of a second (1/1,000 Microsecond (µs) - a millionth of a second (1/1,000,000 10-6) Nanosecond (ns) – a billionth of a second (1/1,000,000,000 10-9)James TamIntroduction to computersJames Tam1

BusesBuses (2) Connect the different parts of the computer togetherJames TamPortsImage from Peter Norton's Computing Fundamentals (3rd Edition) by Norton P.James TamPorts Connects the computer to the outsideJames TamInputJames TamInput Devices Used by a person to communicate to a computer.Person tocomputerJames TamIntroduction to computersJames Tam2

Example Input DevicesProcessor Keyboard Mouse Need not be mundane!Parker, J.R., Baumback, M., Visual HandPose Identification for Intelligent UserInterfaces,Vision Interface 2003, Halifax,Nova Scotia, Canada Jun 11-13, 2003From TamJames TamProcessorProcessor Speed The brains of a computer Determined by:- Type of processor e.g., Pentium IV, AMD Athlon, Opteron- Clock speed 1 Hz 1 pulse is sent out each second (1 second passes between each pulse) 10 Hz 10 pulses are sent out each second (0.1 seconds passes between each pulse) : 25 MHz 25 million pulses sent out each second (0.000 000 04 seconds between eachpulse or 40 ns between pulses) 3.6 Ghz 3.6 billion pulses sent out each second (0.27 ns between pulses) A common desktop processorJames TamThe Processor And The ComputerImage from Peter Norton's Computing Fundamentals (3rd Edition) by Norton P.Introduction to computersJames TamMemoryJames TamJames Tam3

RAMRAM (2) Means direct access to any part of memory The typical form of RAM is DRAM (Dynamic RAM) Volatile Used for temporary storage Typical ranges 256 MB - 4 GBPicture from Computers in your future by Pfaffenberger BJames TamJames TamHow Does DRAM Work?How Does DRAM Work? Most RAM is DRAM (Dynamic RAM) Acts like a leaky bucket Most RAM is DRAM (Dynamic RAM) Acts like a leaky bucketTransistorCapacitorFrom www.howstuffworks.comJames TamDRAM: A Collection Of CapacitorsFrom www.howstuffworks.comJames TamStorageA capacitorJames TamIntroduction to computersJames Tam4

Storage Vs. Memory?Categories Of Storage1. MagneticMemory (e.g., RAM)- Keep the information for a shorter period of time (usually volatile) FasterFloppy disksZip disksHard drives2. Optical More expensive-CD-ROMDVDStorage (e.g., Hard disk) The information is retained longer (non-volatile) Slower CheaperJames TamJames TamMagnetic DrivesMagnetic Drives: Storage Capacities Floppy disks- 1 MB Zip disks- 100, 250, 750 MB Hard drives- 80 – 300 GBPictures from www.howstuffworks.comJames TamOptical Drives: Reading InformationOptical Drives: Recording and Reading InformationJames TamIntroduction to computersJames TamJames Tam5

Optical Drives: Re-WritingOptical Drives: Re-WritingJames TamJames TamOptical DrivesOutput CD's- 700 MB storageCD-ROM (read only)CD-R: (record) to a CDCD-RW: can write and erase CD to reuse it (re-writable) DVD-ROM- Over 4 GB storage (varies with format)- DVD- ROM (read only)- Many recordable formats (e.g., DVD-R, CD-RW; DVD R, DVD RW)James TamOutput DevicesJames TamThe Most Common Output Device: The Monitor Displays information from the computer to the a person.Types of computer monitors1) CRT's (Cathode Ray Tube)2) LCD's (Liquid Crystal Display)James TamIntroduction to computersJames Tam6

CRT's MonitorsLCD Monitors Images are displayed with dots (pixels) drawn with light "guns"Picture from Computer Confluence by Beekman G. Employ a conductive grid for each row and column The meeting of a row and column allows light to be emitted (apixel can be seen)James TamJames TamColour LCD MonitorsSome Determinants Of The Quality Of Monitors Use three sub pixels:1)2)3)4)- One wire for each row- One wire for each sub-pixel- One colour filter for each colour (red, blue, green)SizeResolutionColor depthDot pitchJames TamJames Tam1) Monitor Quality (Size)2) Monitor Quality (Resolution) (Columns of pixels) x (Rows of pixels)Measured diagonallyCol 1,Row 1Col 2,Row 1Col 3,Row 1 Col [c],Row 1Col 1,Row 2Col [c],Row 2Col 1,Row 3Col [c],Row 3::Col 1,Col 2,Col 3, Row [r] Row [r] Row [r]Col[c],Row[r] For a given monitor size, the higher the resolution the sharperthe imageJames TamIntroduction to computersJames Tam7

3) Monitor Quality (Color Depth)3) Monitor Quality (Effects Of Color Depth) The number of possible colors that can be displayed for eachpixel.e.g. monochrome (single color)012 possible valuesUses up 1 bit of space2 colors16 colors256 colors16 millioncoloursJames Tam4) Monitor Quality (Dot Pitch)James TamRefresh Rate Of Monitors How fast the screen is redrawn Dot pitch is the distance between picture elements e.g., thecenter of each color dot (mm)dotpitch (70 Hz / 70 times per second is usually a good minimum)dotpitchJames TamJames TamAll The Basic Parts TogetherDiagram from http://www.jegsworks.comIntroduction to computersThe MotherboardJames TamDiagram from http://www.jegsworks.comJames Tam8

Relating The Speed Of The Computer ToIts ComponentsPrinters Common typesStorage:Hard drive- InkjetMemory:RAM- LaserProcessorJames TamHow Inkjet Printers Work.James TamHow Laser Printers Work Use a series of nozzles to spray drops of ink directly on thepaper Uses a laser to produce patterns on an ink drum using staticelectricityPrint headsSlots for printcartridgesInk nozzlesJames TamPicture from www.howstuffworks.comDiagram from www.howstuffworks.comJames TamYou Should Now Know The basic components of a computer-What are common units of measurementWhat are the basic parts of the high level view of a computerExample input devicesThe role of the processor in a computerWhat determines processor speedWhat are the characteristics of RAMHow does DRAM workThe difference between storage and memoryWhat are the different categories of storage devices as well as commonexamples of eachThe approximate storage capacity of different storage devicesHow do different storage devices workHow do computer monitors workWhat determines the quality of a computer monitorHow hardware affects speedHow do printers workJames TamIntroduction to computers9