THE GRADUATE CENTERPh.D. PROGRAM IN HISTORYGLOBALIZING THE ENLIGHTENMENTHist 72800MALS 70600French 87400Professor Helena RosenblattTuesdays, 4:15-6:[email protected] Description:The Eighteenth Century European Enlightenment is widely seen as a transformative moment inWestern culture, one which gave birth to many of our most cherished ideals. We are often told,for example, that it is to the Enlightenment that we owe our modern notions of human rights,representative government, and liberal democracy. However, the recent “global turn” inscholarship has led historians to ask some new and often unsettling questions. How, forexample, did eighteenth-century European thinkers perceive the world beyond their ownborders? How did they get their information and to what purposes was that information put?Did regions outside of Europe experience an Enlightenment too? With the help of both primaryand secondary sources, we will ask how adopting a “global” perspective on the Enlightenmentmight change our view of it. Is it even correct to call the Enlightenment European?Learning Objectives:Upon successful completion of this course, students should be able to Read texts more critically and effectively Identify and summarize ideas in texts in an articulate and persuasive manner, verballyand in writing Display a grasp of the key methodological questions involved in “globalizing” theEnlightenment Display a grasp of some the key concepts that can be used to illustrate the globalperspective of European eighteenth century thinkers.Requirements: Regular class participation demonstrating careful reading of all assigned texts: 30%2-4 sentence summaries of the argument(s) of each of the weekly readings. Sentencesmay be in bullet form and must be handed in in class: 10% (TEN times over the course ofthe term)

2 a 7-10 page analytical summary of one week’s readings: 30%a 15-20 page analytical and critical summary, in essay form, of Rousseau’s SecondDiscourse answering the following questions: 30% are the (innate) characteristics of Rousseau’s savage (or natural) man?What are the (innate) characteristics of Rousseau’s savage (or natural) woman?How and why do these characteristics change over time?How many “steps to society” are there? Recount them.What role does Rousseau’s savage man play in the Discourse?Is this a “Eurocentric” text? Why or why not and does it matter?No written work will be accepted after December 11.Readings:Recommended for purchase (used editions are readily available, at, for example).These books are also on reserve at the library:David Armitage, The Declaration of Independence: A Global HistoryHarvard University Press, 2008, pages TBAThe Discourse on the Origin of Inequality among Men: by Jean-Jacques Rousseau with RelatedDocuments, Bedford, 2010 (There are many other good editions, but this one includes someother useful documents and a helpful introduction.Margaret Jacob, Strangers Nowhere in the World. The Rise of Cosmopolitanism in Early ModernEurope, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.Lynn Hunt, Inventing Human Rights, W.W. Norton & Co, 2007.Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu, The Persian Letters (There are many good editionsavailable and it can be found online too.)Dorinda Outram, The Enlightenment, Cambridge University Press, 2013.Larry Wolff, Inventing Eastern Europe, Stanford University Press, 1994.All books will be on reserve.All articles are either available through JSTOR or will be provided by the instructor.

3Week One: Introduction to the Course and to the Historiography of the Enlightenment (8/28)Recommended:Immanuel Kant “What is Enlightenment?”Karen O’Brien, “The Return of the Enlightenment,” American Historical Review 115, 5(December, 2010), 1426-1435.Dorinda Outram, “What is Enlightenment?” in Dorinda Outram, The Enlightenment, CambridgeUniversity Press, 2013, 1-9.Week Two: The Enlightenment and its Critics (9/4)Required:Denis Diderot, “Philosophe”Darrin MacMahon, Enemies of the Enlightenment, Oxford University Press, 2002, pages TBAJames Schmidt, “What Enlightenment Project?” Political Theory 28, 6 (2000) 737-738Daniel Gordon, “On the Supposed Obsolescence of the French Enlightenment,” HistoricalReflections/Réflexions Historiques 25, 2 (Summer 1999), pp. 365-385.David A. Hollinger, “The Enlightenment and the Genealogy of Cultural Conflict in the UnitedStates,” in KM Baker and Peter Hanns Reill, eds., What’s Left of Enlightenment: A PostmodernQuestion, Stanford University Press, (2001), 7-18.Robert Wokler, “The Enlightenment Project and its Critics,” in Sven-Eric Liedman, ThePostmodernist Critique of the Project of Enlightenment, Rodopi, 1997, 13-30Recommended:Anthony Pagden, The Enlightenment: And Why it Still Matters, Random House, 2013.Foucault, “What is Enlightenment?” in The Foucault Reader, ed. Paul Rabinow (New York:Pantheon Books, 1984.

4Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer, Dialectic of Enlightenment (There are many editionsavailable)James Schmidt and Thomas E. Wartenberg, “Foucault’s Enlightenment: Critique, Revolution,and the fashioning of the Self,” in Critique and Power: Recasting the Foucault-HabermasDebate, ed. Michael Kelly, MIT Press, 1994, 283-314.September 11 NO CLASSSeptember 18 NO CLASSWeek Three: The Enlightenment Reimagined for the Twenty-First Century (9/25)Required:Daniel Carey and Sven Trakulhun, “Universalism, Diversity, and Postcolonial Enlightenment,” inThe Postcolonial Enlightenment: Eighteenth-Century Colonialism and Postcolonial Theory, 2009,240-280. E-resourceSebastian Conrad, “Enlightenment in Global History: A Historiographical Critique,” TheAmerican Historical Review 117, 4 (October, 2012), 999-1027.—We shall watch a lecture on thisin class.Dorinda Outram, “Exploration, Cross-Cultural Contact, and Ambivalence” in The Enlightenment,Cambridge University Press, 2013, 47-59.Ursula Vogel, “The Sceptical Enlightenment: Philosopher Travellers Look Back at Europe”, TheEnlightenment and Modernity eds. Norman Geras and Robert Wokler, (2002), 3-24. VogelSceptical pdf.Recommended:Edward W. Said Orientalism (Penguin, 1978)David A. Bell, “Questioning the Global Turn: The Case of the French Revolution,” FrenchHistorical Studies 37,1 (Winter 2014), 1-24.Lecture by Sebastian Conrad (very similar to his article) ZdU mX2K0QMLynn Hunt, Writing History in the Global Era, W.W. Norton &Co, 2015.

5Samuel Moyn and Andrew Sartori, eds., Global Intellectual History, Columbia University Press,2015.Charles W. J. Withers, Placing the Enlightenment: Thinking Geographically about the Age ofReason, The University of Chicago Press, 2007, Introduction, “The Enlightenment in NationalContext”, “National Enlightenments?” “Enlightenment Margins,” “Above and beyond theNation. Cosmopolitan Networks,” “The Enlightenment as a Republic of Letters,” (1-49)Week Four: ALL DAY CONFERENCE ON LIBERALISM (10/2)Required:Introduction, Chapter One and Epilogue of Helena Rosenblatt, The Lost History of Liberalism.Week Five: Cosmopolitanism (10/9)Required:Margaret Jacob, Strangers Nowhere in the World. The Rise of Cosmopolitanism in Early ModernEurope, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.Ian Coller “East of Enlightenment: Regulating Cosmopolitanism between Istanbul and Paris inthe Eighteenth Century” The Journal of World History 21, 3 (September 2010), 447-470.Selected letters (TBA) written by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, available online at jlynch/Texts/montagu-letters-abridged.html(Letters I, V, X, XII, XXIV, XXV, XXVI, XXVII, XXIX, XXXI, XXXIII, XXXIV, XXXVIII, XXIX, XL, XLI,XLII, LI, LIII, LIV, LVI, LVIII)Recommended:Immanuel Kant “Idea for a Universal History from a Cosmopolitan Point of view” (1784) inPerpetual Peace and other Essays, trans. T. Kennedy, Hackett Publishing, 1983.Franz Leander Fillafer and Jürgen Osterhammel, “Cosmopolitanism and the GermanEnlightenment,”in The Oxford Handbook of German History, Helmut Walser Smith ed., OxfordUniversity Press, 2011, 119-143.David Harvey, “Cosmopolitanism and the Banality of Geographical Evils,” in Public Culture 12, 2(2000)

6Also at Hellen McMurran, “The New Cosmopolitanism,” Eighteenth Century Studies 47, 1 (Fall,2013), 19-38Walter Mignolo, “The Many Faces of Cosmo-polis: Border Thinking and CriticalCosmopolitanism” Public Culture 12, 3 (2000)Also at .pdfHelena Rosenblatt, “Rousseau, the Anti-Cosmopolitan?” Daedalus 137, 3 (Summer, 2008), 5967.Week Six: “Western Europe” vs. “Eastern Europe” (10/16)Required:Larry Wolfe, Inventing Eastern Europe, Stanford University Press, 1994Week Seven: The Muslim “Other” (10/23)Required:Alexander Bevilacqua, “The Qur’an in Translation,” in Alexander Bevilacqua, The Republic ofArabic Letters, Cambridge, 2018, 44-74.Asli Cirakman, “From Tyranny to Despotism: The Enlightenment’s Unenlightened Image of theTurks,” International Journal of Middle East Studies 33, 1 (2001), 49-68.Kevin J Hayes. “How Thomas Jefferson Read the Qur’an.” Early American Literature 39, 2(2004), 247-261.Montesquieu, The Persian Letters, selected letters TBARecommended:Thomas Kaiser, “The Evil Empire? The Debate on Turkish Despotism in Eighteenth-CenturyFrench Political Culture,” Journal of Modern History 72, 1 (2000), 6-34.Alexander Bevilacqua, The Republic of Arabic Letters, Cambridge, Cambridge, 2018

7Week Eight: The Islamic Enlightenment (10/30)Christopher Bellaigue, The Islamic Enlightenment, Liveright, 2018Week Nine: Enlightenment and Religion (11/6)Required:Walter W. Davis, “China, the Confucian Ideal, and the European Age of Enlightenment” InDiscovering China: European Interpretations in the Enlightenment, ed. Julia Ching and Willard G.Oxtoby, University of Rochester Press, 1-26.Helena Rosenblatt, “The Christian Enlightenment,” in The Cambridge History of Christianity,Stewart J. Brown and Timothy Tackett, eds., Cambridge University Press, 2006, 283-301.David Sorkin, The Religious Enlightenment, Princeton University Press, 2018, Introduction andChapter Four: “Moses Mendelssohn’s ‘Vital Script,’ 165-214.The Treatise of the Three ImpostersRecommended:Justin Champion, “I Remember a Mahometan Story of Ahmed Ben Edris” Freethinking Uses ofIslam from Stubbe to Toland,” Al Quantara 31, 2 (July-December 2010), 443-480.Lynn Hunt, Margaret Jacob and Wijnand Mijnhardt, The Book that Changed Europe, BelknapPress, 2010.Ulrich Lerner, The Catholic Enlightenment: The Forgotten History of a Global Movement, OxfordUniversity Press, 2016.P.J Marshall, ed., British Discovery of Hinduism in the Eighteenth Century, Cambridge, 1970.Week Ten: Anthropologies of the Enlightenment: (11/13 )Denis Diderot, Supplement to Bougainville’s Voyage, selections.Neil Hargraves, “Beyond the Savage Character: Mexicans, Peruvians, and the “ImperfectlyCivilized” in William Robertson’s ‘History of America,” in Larry Wolff and Marco Cipolloni, eds.The Anthropology of the Enlightenment, 103-11.

8Eve Kornfeld “Encountering the ‘Other’: American Intellectuals and Indians in the 1790s,”William and Mary Quarterly 52 (1995), 287-314.Sankar Muthu, “Toward a Subversion of Noble Savagery: From Natural Humans to CulturalHumans” in Enlightenment against Empire (Princeton, NJ: PUP, 2003), 11-71.RecommendedJean-Jacques Rousseau, Discourse on the Origin of Inequality (“Second Discourse”)Jean-Philippe E. Belleau, “Love in the Time of Hierarchy. Ethnographic Voices in EighteenthCentury Haiti” in Larry Wolff and Marco Cipolloni, eds. The Anthropology of the Enlightenment,209-236.Anthony Pagden, “The Immobility of China: Orientalism and Occidentalism In theEnlightenment,” in The Anthropology of the Enlightenment, 56-64.Carl Niekerk, “The Problem of China: Asia and Enlightenment Anthropology” (Buffon, de Pauw,Blumenbach, Herder) in Daniel Leonhard Purdy and Bettina Brandt, eds., China in the GermanEnlightenment, University of Toronto Press, 2016, 97-117.Larry Wolff, “Discovering Cultural Perspective: The Intellectual History of AnthropologicalThought in the Age of Enlightenment” in The Anthropology of the Enlightenment, 3-32.Week Eleven: Race (11/20)Joyce Chaplin, “Race” in David Armitage, ed, The British Atlantic World, 1500- 1800, 2002), 154174Aaron Garrett and Silvia Sebastiani, « David Hume on Race » in The Oxford Handbook ofPhilosophy of Race, éd. Naomi Zack, Oxford University Press, 2017, 31-43Silvia Sebastiani, « Race as a Construction of the ‘Other’: ‘Native Americans’ and ‘Negroes’ inthe Eighteenth-Century Editions of the Encyclopædia Britannica », in Bo Stråth (dir.), Europeand the Other and Europe as the Other, Bruxelles, P.I.E.-Peter Lang, 2000, 195-228.Jorge Cañizares-Esguerra, “New Worlds, New Stars: Patriotic Astrology and the Invention ofIndian and Creole Bodies in Colonial Spanish America 1600- 1650”, American Historical Review104 (February 1999), 33-68

9Walter Demel, “How the Chinese Became Yellow: A Contribution to the Early History of RaceTheories,” in Daniel Leonhard Purdy and Bettina Brandt, eds., China in the GermanEnlightenment, 20-59.RecommendedEmmanuel Chukwudi Eze, ed., Race and the Enlightenment: A ReaderNicholas Hudson, “From ‘Nation’ to “Race’: The Origin of Racial Classification in EighteenthCentury Thought.” Eighteenth-Century Studies 29 (1996) 247-64.Richard Popkin, “Hume’s Racism,” Philosophical Forum 9, 2-3 (1977-1978), 211-226. Alsopublished in The High Road to Pyrrhonism, ed. Richard A. Watson and James E. Force, Austin HillPress, 251-266.Richard Popkin, “The Philosophical Basis of Modern Racism,” in Racism in the EighteenthCentury, ed. Harold E. Palgiaro, Case Western Reserve Press, 245-262.Silvia Sebastiani, The Scottish Enlightenment. Race, Gender and the Limits of Progress, PalgraveMacmillan, 2013.Naomi Zack, Philosophy of Science and Race, Routledge, 2002.Week Twelve: Enlightenment Origins of Human Rights (11/27)David Armit