1. The Silent Generation (also referred to as the “Matures” or“Traditionalists” in some literature) are those born prior to 1946 orthe end of the second world war;2. Baby Boomers are those born between 1946 and 1960 as childrenof post-war survivors;3. Gen Xers are those born between 1960 and 1980; and4. Millennials are born between 1980 and 19955. Generation Z (“Gen Z”) who are said to be born after 1995(Holderman & Walls, 2008; Robertson, 2009)

According to the AmericanManagement Association:Silents are considered among the mostloyal workers. They are highlydedicated and the most risk averse.Their values were shaped by the GreatDepression, World War II, and thepostwar boom years.Silents possess a strong commitmentto teamwork and collaboration andhave high regard for developinginterpersonal communications skills

American Management AssociationBaby Boomers. Boomers are the firstgeneration to actively declare ahigher priority for work overpersonal life. They are moreoptimistic and open to change thanthe prior generation, but they arealso responsible for the “MeGeneration,” with its pursuit ofpersonal gratification.

Generation Xers. They naturallyquestion authority figures and areresponsible for creating the work/lifebalance concept. Born in a time ofdeclining population growth, thisgeneration of workers possessesstrong technical skills and is moreindependent than the priorgenerations.Millennials or Generation Ys. Thisgroup is the first global-centricgeneration, having come of age duringthe rapid growth of the Internet andan increase in global terrorism. Theyare among the most resilient innavigating change while deepeningtheir appreciation for diversity andinclusion.

Generation Z iGeneration (iGen), Gen Tech, Gen Wii, Net Gen, Digital Natives and Plurals

Gen Z According to Ng & Parry, Emma (2016), Gen Z is seen as the first trulydigital and global generation, is a global and diverse generation, whogrew up in a wider mix of backgrounds than other generations (Labi,2008). They are confident, very optimistic, imaginative, and thinkmore laterally than other generations (Matthews, 2008). They have never known a world without computers and cellphones. Having integrated technology seamlessly into their lives, andhaving used it from the youngest age; it is almost like the air thatthey breathe, permeating almost all areas of their lifestyle andrelationships.



REPUBLIC ACT No. 10533Enhanced Basic Education Act of 2013

SEC. 5. Curriculum Development.The DepED shall work with the Commission on HigherEducation (CHED) to craft harmonized basic and tertiarycurricula for the global competitiveness of Filipino graduates.To ensure college readiness and to avoid remedial andduplication of basic education subjects, the DepED shallcoordinate with the CHED and the Technical Education, andSkills Development Authority (TESDA).The DepED shall adhere to the following standards andprinciples in developing the enhanced basic educationcurriculum:

(a) The curriculum shall be learner-centered, inclusive anddevelopmentally appropriate;(b) The curriculum shall be relevant, responsive and research-based;(c) The curriculum shall be culture-sensitive;(d) The curriculum shall be contextualized and global;(e) The curriculum shall use pedagogical approaches that areconstructivist, inquiry-based, reflective, collaborative, andintegrative;(f) The curriculum shall adhere to the principles ,and framework ofMother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE)(g) The curriculum shall use the spiral progression(h) The curriculum shall be flexible enough to enable and allow schoolsto localize, indigenize and enhance the same based on theirrespective educational and social contexts.

DepEd REGION IV-A MEMORANDUM No. 11s. 2015THE 2C-2I-1R Teaching and Learning Approaches Across Learning Areas thatSupport Teacher Practice is a guide to all curriculum planners,designers and leaders of DepEd Region IVA. It was crafted to providesupport in implementing the approaches prescribed in RA10533expected to develop the information skills, learning and innovationskills, communication skills, life and career skills of all learners in thebasic education program. The five major approaches are Constructivist, Collaborative,Integrative, Reflective and Inquiry Based Learning ( 2C-2I-1R ).

DepEd REGION IV-A Regional MemorandumNo. 233, s. 2016 Implementation of the Pedagogical Approaches “ this Office reiterates the use of the 2C-2I-1R approachescum suggested strategies and underlying principles ”

Article XIV, Section 5 of the Constitution ofthe Philippines states, "Academic freedom shall be enjoyed in allinstitutions of higher learning." The raison d’être (reason for being) of academicfreedom is to guarantee that teaching, learning andresearch are free from state intervention andmanipulation (Osieja, 2016)

PEDAGOGY derived from French and Latin adaptations of theGreek boy leader, literally means a man havingoversight of a child, or an attendant leading a boy toschool (Mortimore, 1999). “Paidagōgos” is an ancient Greek word (παιδαγωγο′ς)meaning “a slave who takes children to school tolearn” (Pritchard & Woollard, 2010)

PEDAGOGY the heart of teaching. It is the rules and principles that guideeffective and efficient activities which lead to learning(Pritchard & Woollard, 2010) The field relies heavily on educational psychology, whichencompasses scientific theories of learning, and to someextent on the philosophy of education, which considers theaims and value of education from a philosophical perspective(

A Study of the Philippine Values Education Programme(1986-1993)Lourdes R. Quisumbing (1994)Three emerging schools of thought underlievalues development.1. Learning theorists or behaviorists2. Cognitive develop mentalists3. Psychoanalyst

A Study of the Philippine Values Education 1. Learning theorists or behaviorists view moralbehavior as the result of three sorts ofmechanism: reinforcement and rewards,punishment or threat of it, and modelling orimitation. This is related to Skinner's patterns ofbehavior modification through reinforcement.The works of Sears, Bandura, and Eysenck provideexamples of this theory.

A Study of the Philippine Values Education 2. The cognitive develop mentalists view valuesdevelopment as an "active, dynamic andconstructive process. where the individual isable to act according to moral principles becausehe understands and agrees with them." Theworks of Piaget, Kohlberg, Turiel and Gessellprovide examples of this view.

A Study of the Philippine Values Education 3. The psychoanalysts view values developmentas a conforming to cultural standards through theinternalization of emotional experiences and thesimultaneous formulation of conscience. Freudand Erickson's works provide examples of thisthought.

In 2012, the shift to K-12 began and thus, led to the updating andrevision of the Values Education program, along with other learningareas. At the elementary level, Character Education is replaced byEdukasyon sa Pagpapakatao which focuses on honing an individual’scapacity to make moral and ethical decisions and actions. At the secondary level is based on ethics and career guidance. Itcovers concepts of self and humanity, moral values, career choices,and responsibility. Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao (EsP), “ang palatandaan o batayangkakayahan ng functional literacy ay nagpapasya at kumikilos nangmapanagutan tungo sa kabutihang panlahat (common good)”

Constructivist This is based on the central notion that learners construct their ourown understanding of the world around them based on experienceas they live and grow. They select and transform information frompast and current knowledge and experience into new personalknowledge and understanding (Pritchard & Woollard, 2010) Constructivist Approach allows learners to be active in the process ofconstructing meaning and knowledge rather than passivelyreceiving information. It fosters critical thinking and provides learnerswith a learning environment that helps them make connections withtheir learnings (RM No. 11 s. 2015)

Constructivist Since the construction is the process of learning, teachers have a bigrole like(a) to influence, or create motivating conditions for students,(b) take responsibility for creating problem situations,(c) foster acquisition and retrieval of prior knowledge,(d) create the process of learning not the product of learning Olsen(1999)

Constructivist Teorya ng Pagtuturo-Pagkatuto : AngInteraktibong Teorya ng Pagkatuto(Social Learning Theory) ni AlbertBandura, Pagkatutong Pangkaranasan(Experiential Learning) ni David Kolb,Konstruktibismo (Constructivism) atTeorya ng Pamimili ng Kurso (Theory ofCareer Development) ni Ginzberg, at Super ang iba pang teorya nanagpapaliwanag kung paano natututoang mag-aaral sa EsP.

COLLABORATIVE APPROACH Collaborative learning (CL) is aneducational approach toteaching and learning thatinvolves groups of learnersworking together to solve aproblem, complete a task, orcreate a product (Laal & Laal,2012)

COLLABORATIVE Further, Laal & Laal (2012) stated that good way to understand what CLmeans is to refer to the definitions presented by experts in the field: CL is an umbrella term for a variety of educational approaches involving jointintellectual effort by students, or students and teachers together. Activities vary,but most center on student’s exploration or application of the course material, notsimply the teacher’s presentation or explication of it (Smith, B.L. & MacGregor, J.T.,1992). that learning is a naturally social act in which participants talk among themselves.It is through the talk that learning occurs (Gerlach, J.M., 1994, p.12). Two or more may be interpreted as a pair, a small group (3-5 subjects) or a class(20-30 subjects). Learn something may be interpreted as follow a course; performlearning activities such as problem solving. Together may be interpreted as differentforms of interaction which may be face-to-face or computer mediated (Dillenbourg, P., 1999).

COLLABORATIVE RM No. 11 s. 2015, in order to achieve a classroom wherecollaborative learning approach works, teachers must fullyunderstand learners preferred learning styles and view of learningClassroom teachers shall use the following strategies properly1. Online - Collaborative Learning2. Jigsaw Method3. Think- Pair- Share4. Integrated Process Approach5. Peer Teaching

INTEGRATIVE APPROACH Roegiers (2001) cited by Peyser, Gerard,& Roegiers (2006), The goal of suchpedagogy is to enable the learner tomaster those situations he/she will haveto deal with in his/her professionaland/or private life. Integrative Approach provides learnerswith a learning environment that helpsthem make connections of theirlearning's across curricula. It focuses onconnections rather than teachingisolated facts (RM No. 11 s. 2015).

INTEGRATIVE APPROACH To this effect, pedagogy of integration has fourobjectives (Peyser, Gerard, & Roegiers, 2006):1. Making sense of the learning process2. Differentiating matters by relevance3. Applying the learning to practical situations4. Associating the learned elements

Inquiry Based Approach “Inquiry . requires more than simply answeringquestions or getting a right answer. It espousesinvestigation, exploration, search, quest,research, pursuit, and study.” (Kuklthau,Maniotes & Caspari, 2007) Whitworth, Maeng & Bell (2013) inquiry is animportant pedagogical approach in teachingScience. Another underlying reason is that itssuccess can be significantly improved due to therecent technical developments that allow theinquiry process to be supported by electroniclearning environments (Pedaste, Et al., 2015)

Inquiry Based Approach Educators play an active rolethroughout the process byestablishing a culture where ideasare respectfully challenged, tested,redefined and viewed as improvable,moving children from a position ofwondering to a position of enactedunderstanding and furtherquestioning (Scardamalia, 2002).

Inquiry Based ApproachTo achieve the desired outcomes using this approach, thefollowing strategies can be adopted (RM No. 11 s. 2015):1. Simulation2. Demonstration3. Experiment4. Field Study5. Project Work

Reflective Approach Reflective Teaching Learning Approach means looking atwhat the teacher and learners do in classroom, thinkingabout why they do it, and analyzing about it if it works. Thisis a process of self-evaluation cum self-observation (RegionalMemorandum No. 233, s. 2016 ) Suggested Strategies: Self Evaluation and Self Reflection Suggested Form of Assessment: Diary Presentation, Paperwriting Reports, or Journals

Pedagogical approaches are often placed on aspectrum from teachercentered to learnercentered pedagogy

Pedagogical approaches Teacher-Centered Pedagogy: Teachercentered pedagogy positions theteacher at the center of the learningprocess and typically relies on methodssuch as whole-class lecture, rotememorization, and chorus answers(i.e., call-and-response). This approachis often criticized, especially whenstudents complete only lower-ordertasks and are afraid of the teacher.

Pedagogical approaches Learner-Centered Pedagogy: Thispedagogical approach has manyassociated terms (e.g., constructivist,student-centered, participatory,active

Reflective Approach Reflective Teaching Learning Approach means looking at what the teacher and learners do in classroom, thinking about why they do it, and analyzing about it if it works. This is a process of self-evaluation cum self-observation (Regional Memorandum No. 233, s. 2016 ) Suggested Strategies: Self Evaluation and Self Reflection